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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended: December 31, 2023
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
EOS ENERGY ENTERPRISES, INC.
Delaware001-3929184-4290188
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation)
(Commission
File Number)
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
3920 Park Avenue
Edison, New Jersey 08820
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (732) 225-8400
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.0001 per shareEOSEThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Warrants, each exercisable for one share of common stockEOSEWThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of the “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “non-accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes No

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, June 30, 2023, was approximately $522.2 million based upon the closing sale price of our common stock of $4.34 on that date. As of February 27, 2024, there were 202,645,716 shares of the registrant’s common stock issued and outstanding.



Table of Contents
Page
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

Forward-Looking Statements

All statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Annual Report"), other than statements or characterizations of historical fact, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The words "anticipate," "believe," "continue," "could," "estimate," "expect," "intends," "may," "might," "plan," "possible," "potential," "predict," "project," "should," "would" and similar expressions, as they relate to us, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements appear in a number of places in this Annual Report and include statements regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of Eos Energy Enterprises, Inc. Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs, as well as assumptions made by, and information currently available to, them. Because such statements are based on expectations as to future financial and operating results and are not statements of fact, actual results may differ materially from those projected. Factors which may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, but are not limited to:    

changes adversely affecting the business in which we are engaged;
our ability to forecast trends accurately;

1


our ability to generate cash, service indebtedness and incur additional indebtedness;
our ability to raise financing in the future;
our customers' ability to secure project financing;
the amount of final tax credits available to our customers or to Eos Energy Enterprises, Inc. pursuant to the Inflation Reduction Act;
uncertainties around our ability to meet the applicable conditions precedent and secure final approval of a loan in a timely manner or at all from the Department of Energy, Loan Programs Office, or the timing of funding and the final size of any loan if approved;
the possibility of a government shutdown while we remain in the due diligence phase with the U.S. Department of Energy Loan Programs Office or while we await notice of a decision regarding the issuance of a loan from the Department of Energy Loan Programs Office;
our ability to develop efficient manufacturing processes to scale and to forecast related costs and efficiencies accurately;
fluctuations in our revenue and operating results;
competition from existing or new competitors;
the failure to convert firm order backlog and pipeline to revenue;
risks associated with security breaches in our information technology systems;
risks related to legal proceedings or claims;
risks associated with evolving energy policies in the United States and other countries and the potential costs of regulatory compliance;
risks associated with changes to U.S. trade environment;
risks resulting from the impact of global pandemics, including the novel coronavirus, Covid-19;
our ability to maintain the listing of our shares of common stock on NASDAQ;
our ability to grow our business and manage growth profitably, maintain relationships with customers and suppliers and retain our management and key employees;
risks related to adverse changes in general economic conditions, including inflationary pressures and increased interest rates;
risk from supply chain disruptions and other impacts of geopolitical conflict;
changes in applicable laws or regulations;
other factors detailed under the section entitled “Risk Factors” herein.
More information on these important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in the forward‑looking statements we make in this Annual Report are set forth in Part I, Item 1A under “Risk Factors”. In addition, there may be other factors of which we are presently unaware or that we currently deem immaterial that could cause our actual results to be materially different from the results referenced in the forward‑looking statements.
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. Readers are cautioned not to put undue reliance on forward-looking statements, and, except as required by law, the Company assumes no obligation and does not intend to update or revise these forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.


2


PART I

ITEM. 1 BUSINESS

General
Eos Energy Enterprises, Inc. (the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and “Eos”), a Delaware corporation, was originally incorporated in Delaware on June 3, 2019, as a special purpose acquisition company under the name B. Riley Principal Merger Corp. II., in order to acquire a company or companies, through a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination. Upon the completion of a business combination on November 16, 2020 (the "Merger"), the Company changed its name to “Eos Energy Enterprises, Inc.” The Company’s common shares started trading under the ticker NASDAQ: EOSE on November 16, 2020.
On April 8, 2021, the Company entered into a unit purchase agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Holtec Power, Inc. (“Holtec”), in accordance with the terms and conditions of which the Company purchased from Holtec the remaining 51% interest in HI-POWER, LLC (“Hi-Power”) that was not already owned by the Company. Hi-Power was incorporated as a joint venture between the Company and Holtec in 2019. In connection with the transaction, the Company also entered into a transition services agreement and a sublease with Holtec. The transaction closed on April 9, 2021. Following the consummation of the transactions set forth in the Purchase Agreement (the “Transactions”), Hi-Power became a 100% indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company and the obligations of the parties under the Hi-Power joint venture terminated.
The Company designs, develops, manufactures, and markets innovative zinc-based energy storage solutions for utility-scale, microgrid, and commercial & industrial (“C&I”) applications. We believe that our batteries have the potential to emerge as a leading alternative to Lithium-ion (“Li-ion”) batteries for such long-duration applications. The Company has developed a broad range of intellectual property with multiple patents covering unique battery chemistry, mechanical product design, energy block configuration and a software operating system (Battery Management System or "BMS"). The BMS software uses proprietary Eos-developed algorithms and includes ambient and battery temperature sensors, as well as voltage and electric current sensors for the electrical strings and the system. The Company currently focuses on manufacturing and selling turn-key direct current ("DC") battery energy storage systems. The Company plans to develop a turn-key alternating current ("AC") system. The Company’s primary applications focus on integrating battery storage solutions with: (1) renewable energy systems that are connected to the utility power grid; (2) renewable energy systems that are not connected to the utility power grid; (3) storage systems utilized to relieve congestion; and (4) storage systems to assist C&I customers in reducing their peak energy usage or participating in the utilities ancillary and demand response markets. The Company has a manufacturing facility in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania to produce DC energy blocks with an integrated BMS. The Company’s primary market is North America. The Company has one operating and reportable segment.

Principal Products and Services
The Company offers an innovative Znyth™ technology battery energy storage system ("BESS") designed to provide the operating flexibility to manage increased grid complexity and price volatility resulting from an overall increase in renewable energy generation and a congested grid coming from an increase in electricity demand growth. The Company’s BESS is a validated chemistry with accessible non-precious earth components in a durable design that is intended to deliver results in even the most extreme temperatures and conditions. The system is designed to be safe, flexible, scalable, sustainable and manufactured in the United States, using raw materials primarily sourced in the United States. We believe the Company’s flagship Gen 2.3™ battery module and its newest Z3™ battery module ("Z3") are the core of its innovative systems. The Z3 battery module is the only US designed and manufactured battery module that today provide utilities, independent power producers, renewables developers, and C&I customers with an alternative to lithium-ion and lead-acid monopolar batteries for critical 3- to 12-hour discharge duration applications. We believe the Z3 battery will transform how utility, industrial, and commercial customers store power.

3


In addition to its BESS, the Company currently offers: (a) a BMS which provides a remote asset monitoring capability and service to track the performance and health of the Company’s BESS and to proactively identify future system performance issues through predictive analytics; (b) project management services to ensure the process of implementing the Company’s BESS are coordinated in conjunction with the customer’s overall project plans; (c) commissioning services that ensure the customer’s installation of the BESS meets the performance expected by the customer; and (d) long-term maintenance plans to maintain optimal operating performance of the Company’s systems.
Availability of Raw Materials
While we believe we have sufficient sources for the materials, components, services and supplies used in our manufacturing activities, we are highly dependent on the availability of essential materials, parts and subassemblies from our suppliers. The predominant raw materials that are required for our Z3™ battery product are zinc halide salts, felt, resin, titanium, and conductive polymer.
We use both domestic and international raw materials suppliers to create our Gen 2.3 battery module, as well as the next generation Z3 battery module. We will continue to focus on domesticating our supply chain in an economically sustainable manner.
Additionally, based on the latest Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") guidance, the Company believes that our current Gen 2.3 battery module and our next generation Z3 battery module feature raw materials sourcing sufficient to qualify for the Domestic Content Bonus awarded by the Inflation Reduction Act’s ("IRA") tax credits.
Industry Overview
We believe that energy storage is on the verge of wide-scale global deployment, becoming a critical element of a low-carbon, flexible, resilient future electric grid. In the past several years, there has been a dramatic increase of variable renewable generation in the U.S. power sector, and we expect significant growth in the future. At the same time, there have been significant cost declines in energy storage technologies (particularly batteries) over the past few years, and cheaper energy storage technologies are under development. These converging factors have increased attention on the potential role of energy storage as a critical asset for decarbonization and reliable electricity for the evolving grid. Additionally, there are significant government incentives, such as the recently enacted IRA, that includes significant tax credits, that the Company will benefit from in the near future. See Regulations section in Item 1 - Business.
As batteries increasingly become economical on a levelized cost of storage basis, we believe that utility-scale battery technology will be increasingly beneficial for a variety of solutions, including solar-plus-storage, peaking capacity, grid congestion and wind-plus-storage. We anticipate rapid increases in utility scale, co-located renewable energy-plus-storage projects, especially in the United States, with most near and medium-term installations qualifying as utility scale. By combining a battery with an intermittent renewable energy source, such as wind or solar, the energy stored in the battery can be used when the intermittent source is not available, for example if the wind is not blowing or the sun is not shining.

Strategy
The Company continues to invest in the design, development, and production of its next generation product, the Eos Z3 battery, which builds off the same electrochemistry that has not fundamentally changed for the better part of a decade. The next generation Eos Z3 battery is designed to reduce cost and weight while improving manufacturability and system performance. The Eos Z3 battery is more cost-effective and has a simpler tub design with 50% fewer cells and 98% fewer welds per battery module, compared to Gen 2.3. The Company currently expects the Eos Z3 battery will give customers the benefit of two times the energy density per square foot with the same safety and reliability as the previous generation battery. The Eos Z3 transition is fully underway, and the first semi-automated battery manufacturing line is installed and has started commercial production. Eos Z3 batteries utilize the same chemistry, which has over 3 million cycles, and incorporate a new mechanical design aimed at improving performance, lowering cost and increasing manufacturability.

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The Company started delivery of its Z3™ battery modules in the third quarter of 2023. The Z3 battery incorporates valuable lessons learned from the past 15 years into a new system design which the Company expects to result in efficiencies as it develops its new state-of-the-art manufacturing line.
The Company believes the simplicity, flexibility, and safety of our products are what the market desires. In addition, we understand that the Inflation Reduction Act gives us a competitive advantage with production tax credits (“PTC”) that can be claimed on battery components manufactured domestically, in addition to a tax credit for customers for projects that satisfy domestic content requirements. See Regulations section in Item 1 - Business. The Company intends to engage with a consortium of community leaders, universities, and supply chain partners in anticipation of pursuing grants made available under the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law of 2021.
Market Trends and Opportunities
The Company believes the world wants to generate energy with sustainable renewable energy sources, however this objective creates imbalances in the existing energy grid. Managing and mitigating those imbalances will require multiple energy storage technologies to provide safe and reliable power. Until now, most energy storage systems have been in short durations, meaning they have reliably provided power for less than four hours. The Company believes the future will require mid-duration (6-12 hour) BESS that provide the flexibility to match intermittency and congestion. The Z3 battery is predominantly composed of five earth-abundant, readily available raw materials with mature supply chains that allow the Company to drive cost down as it scales up production.
Li-ion batteries are the prevailing form of stationary energy storage. This is primarily driven by Electric Vehicles ("EV"), since lithium is one of the key components in EV batteries. According to the Benchmark Source, the lithium industry needs to invest $116 billion by 2030 if the world is to meet the ambitions targets set by governments and the largest automakers. The analysis's high case scenario, which encompasses data from Rho Motion on automakers’ passenger EV targets as well as data from the International Energy Agency on enacted country-level policies, would require 5.3 million tonnes of lithium carbonate equivalent in production today, and we believe the result will be a supply shortage, causing increase in lithium prices.
Intellectual Property
The success of our business depends, in part, on our ability to maintain and protect our proprietary technology, information, processes and know-how. We rely primarily on patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws in the United States and similar laws in other countries, confidentiality agreements and procedures and other contractual arrangements. These patents are subject to regulatory approval by the respective governing entity where the patent was filed. A majority of our patents relate to cell chemistry, architecture and battery mechanical design, system packaging and BMS. We continually assess opportunities to seek patent protection for those aspects of our technology, design, methodologies and processes that we believe provide significant competitive advantages.
The Company periodically assesses its patent portfolio in relation to the patents’ utility and materiality to the current operation and future strategy of the business and abandons applications or ceases to maintain patents which are deemed immaterial to our current or future business operations. As of December 31, 2023, we have 23 patent families and 122 patents pending, issued, or published in 28 countries, protecting our technology and system architecture. The Company's key patents, related to its most recent generation product and future products, are not scheduled to expire until 2035 or later.
In addition, the Company relies on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to safeguard our interests with respect to proprietary know-how that is not patentable and processes for which patents are difficult to enforce. We believe that many key elements of our manufacturing processes involve proprietary know-how, technology or data that are not covered by patents or patent applications, including technical processes, test equipment designs, algorithms and procedures. All of our research and development personnel have entered into confidentiality and proprietary information agreements with us. These agreements address intellectual property protection issues and requires our employees to assign to us all of the inventions, designs and technologies that Company personnel develop during the course of their employment. We also require our customers and business partners to enter into confidentiality agreements before we disclose any sensitive aspects of our technology or business plans.


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Regulations

Governmental Programs and Incentives
Globally, both the operations of our business by us and the ownership of our products by our customers are impacted by various government programs, incentives and other arrangements.
U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Renewable Energy Project and Efficient Energy Loan Program
In August 2023, the DOE issued a Conditional Commitment Letter to the Company for a loan of an aggregate principal amount of up to $398.6 million through the DOE’s Clean Energy Financing Program. The Conditional Commitment Letter follows an extensive technical, financial and commercial due diligence process by the DOE. If finalized, the loan is expected to fund 80% of eligible costs of the Company’s planned manufacturing expansion in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania.
Eligible costs include capital expenditures and other costs associated with ramping up the manufacturing lines and facility, for example start-up and shakedown costs, as well as certain material and labor costs before efficiencies are met. The Company is working to finalize the loan documents with the DOE and to fulfill certain conditions precedent. Eos is spending eligible costs now that would be reimbursable at first funding.
Inflation Reduction Act of 2022
On August 16, 2022, President Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 into law. The IRA has significant economic incentives for both energy storage customers and manufacturers for projects placed in service after December 31, 2022. One of the most important features of the IRA is that it offers a 10-year term tax credit, whereas historically similar industrial credits have been shorter in duration. Customers placing new energy storage facilities in service, which include our Gen 2.3 and Z3™ BESS, could qualify for investment tax credit (“ITC”). The IRA also offers an extra ten percent credit if the project is in an “energy community” and another ten percent credit if the project satisfies domestic content requirements, which will be set forth when the implementing regulations are finalized. The ten percent bonus for domestic content could represent a strategic advantage for the Company resulting from the Company’s near-sourcing and Made in America strategy, and we currently anticipate that projects utilizing Eos batteries will qualify for the bonus.
Starting in 2023, there are Production Tax Credits under Internal Revenue Code 45X (“PTC”), that can be claimed on battery components manufactured in the U.S. and sold to U.S. or foreign customers. These tax credits available to manufacturers include a credit for ten percent of the cost incurred to make electrode active materials in addition to credits of $35 per kWh of capacity of battery cells and $10 per kWh of capacity of battery modules. These credits are cumulative, meaning that companies will be able to claim each of the available tax credits based on the battery components produced and sold through 2029, after which the PTC will begin to gradually phase down through 2032. In June 2023, the IRS issued temporary and proposed regulations related to applicable tax credit transferability and direct pay provisions of the Inflation Reduction Act. The Company has reviewed these regulations and believes they do not have a material impact on the financial statements.
These credits are expected to be a new source of cash flow for Eos in the future.
Competition
The markets for our products are competitive, and we compete with manufacturers of traditional Li-ion and other battery storage systems. Factors affecting customers when choosing from different battery storage systems in the market include:
product performance and features;
safety and sustainability;
total lifetime cost of ownership;
total operational costs related to auxiliary equipment;

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total product lifespan and degradation rate;
power and energy efficiency;
duration of the battery's storage;
customer service and support; and
U.S.-based manufacturing and sourced materials.
Our Znyth battery system competes with products from traditional Li-ion battery manufacturers and solution providers such as Panasonic, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, LG Chem, Ltd., Tesla, BYD, Sungrow, and Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Limited. Our longer duration competitors include ESS Inc., Enervenue, Ambri, Form Energy, and Lockheed Martin. We believe that our current and next generation battery system offers significant technology, safety and cost advantages that reflect a competitive differentiation over Li-ion storage technologies.

Competitive Strengths
We believe the following strengths of our business distinguish us from our competitors and position us to capitalize on the expected continued growth in the energy storage market:
Differentiated Product- Lithium cells must be kept within a narrow temperature range (25 °C +/- 5 °C), otherwise they are at risk of thermal runaway, potentially leading to fire or explosion. The Znyth™ BESS has a significantly wider thermal operating range (-20°C to 50°C), which eliminates the need for costly thermal management measures such as HVAC and fire suppression systems. Additionally, the product is a static modular battery design, which eliminates the need for pumps or compressors, both maintenance prone equipment required for flow batteries. Our battery system can charge and discharge at different durations, covering a wide range of use cases. The charge and discharge rates are fixed for Li-ion, and the life of a Li-ion battery can degrade if it is not charged or discharged at the rate for which it was designed, while the Eos Znyth technology BESS is not subject to the same degradation. This is because Eos batteries are manufactured at zero voltage and a zero percent state of charge, whereas Li-ion batteries must be kept at a specific voltage and state of charge even when not actively being used.
Minimal Supply Chain Constraints- All materials for producing our Gen 2.3 and next generation Z3™ battery products are widely available commodities with fewer supply chain constraints and minimal competition from electric vehicles. Additionally, the majority of the materials are recyclable at end of product life, helping preserve the environment.
Proven Technology Solution in the Growing and Evolving Energy Storage Market- As we launch the Z3 battery and ramp up manufacturing to gigawatt-hours (“GWh”) scale, we believe that we will benefit from the overall growth of the energy storage market, which is expected to reach 1,095 GWh by 2040, as projected by BNEF. From an application perspective, the market is evolving to a LDES market. Our technology is tailored to address such a need. While Li-ion has been optimized for shorter duration, the performance of our batteries improves as it moves towards longer duration, making us the prime technology for the long-duration storage market.
Experienced Technology Team Focused on Continuous Innovation- Our research and development team is responsible for growing and advancing our intellectual property portfolio, protecting our technology and system architecture. We believe that our continued investment in research and development will enable us to improve efficiency, energy density, functionality, and reliability while reducing the cost of our battery solution. We are also focused on leveraging our technology know-how to improve our BMS, expanding the operation of our batteries and increasing our overall performance. This same leverage would allow us to optimize our energy management solution to contextualize the operation of the battery based on the application, expanding our customers' ability to use our Znyth™ BESS in a wider set of use-cases.

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Established Global Sales Channels Anchored with Top-Tier Customers- We sell products directly to the electric utility industry and through sales channels to the commercial and industrial market. We continue to build relationships with new customers and enter into agreements to provide battery solutions to new customers.
Strong management team- We have assembled an executive team focused on accelerating the commercialization of the next-generation Z3™ battery product. With decades of combined, diverse experience in the energy industry and deep expertise in manufacturing, battery storage and executing complex power and energy projects around the world, our management team is able to develop, manufacture and deliver systems at scale to meet the growing demands of the global storage market.

Customers
Our customers include the following:
Renewable power producers and developers.
Industrial companies.
Microgrid developers.
During fiscal year 2023, two customers individually accounted for 49.9% and 45.2%, respectively, of our total revenue.

Environmental, Social and Governance ("ESG")
Since our founding, the Company has been on a mission to accelerate the shift to clean energy by transforming how the world stores power in a safe, scalable, efficient, and sustainable way. We are committed to advancing global sustainable development through our products, working to systematically grow our business to meet the challenges of the global energy transition and combat the global climate crisis. Additionally, the Company has not incurred significant costs to remain in compliance with environmental laws.
Our approach to ESG is intrinsically united to our four product themes: safety, scalability, sustainability, and efficiency. As we continue to scale, we remain committed to driving progress across these themes.

Human Capital
The table below represents our 2023 employees by gender* and ethnicity as a percentage of total headcount across non-exempt and exempt positions:
By GenderBy Ethnicity
FemaleMaleAfrican AmericanAsianHispanic or LatinoTwo or more racesWhite
Non-exempt%43 %24 %%%%20 %
Exempt13 %37 %%%%%33 %
  Total20 %80 %29 %9 %6 %3 %53 %
*While we present male and female, we acknowledge this is not fully encompassing of all gender identities.
As of December 31, 2023, we had 420 total employees, all of which are full-time employees. None of our employees are represented by a labor union. We have not experienced any employment-related work stoppages, and we consider relations with our employees to be good.
Our success is based on the focused passion and dedication of our personnel. We are committed to providing a positive and engaging work environment for our employees and taking an active role in the betterment of the communities in which our employees live and work. Our full-time employees are provided a competitive benefits program, including comprehensive healthcare benefits, a 3% non-elective employer contribution 401(k) plan, equity awards, discretionary bonus and incentive pay opportunities, paid time-off benefits, paid parental leave, wellness programs, and periodic surveys.

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Available Information
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act") are available free of charge on our investor website, located at https://investors.eose.com/, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission. Our reports are also available on the Securities and Exchange Commission's website at https://www.sec.gov/. The information on our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part hereof or incorporated into this or any of our other filings with the SEC.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
In addition to the factors discussed elsewhere in this Report, the following risks and uncertainties could materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Risk Factors Summary
The following is a summary of the principal risks that could adversely affect our business, operations and financial results.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
We have a history of losses that casts substantial doubt as to our ability to continue as a going concern. We must deliver on our potential for significant business growth and improved manufacturing processes to achieve sustained, long-term profitability and long-term commercial success.
We believe our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards will likely be substantially limited as a result of an “ownership change,” as defined in Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
We identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting, and we may identify additional material weaknesses in the future that may cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations or result in material misstatements of our financial statements. If we do not effectively remediate these material weaknesses or if we otherwise fail to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately and timely report our financial results.
Our business and financial results have and may continue to be adversely affected by the effects of sustained inflation and increased interest rates.
Current market conditions and recessionary pressures in one or more of our markets could impact our ability to grow our business.
The relatively recent commercialization of our products makes it difficult to evaluate our prospects.
•     Failure to deliver the benefits offered by our technologies, or the emergence of improvements to competing technologies, could reduce demand for our products and harm our business.
A decline in lithium prices may result in increased competition from traditional lithium-ion batteries and adversely affect the demand for our products.
As we endeavor to expand our business, we will incur significant costs and expenses, which could outpace our cash reserves. Unfavorable conditions or disruptions in the capital and credit markets may adversely impact business conditions and the availability of credit.
Our success depends on the continuing contributions of our key personnel, and the loss of services of any principal member of our management team could adversely affect our business.
The failure or breach of our network or IT systems, including as a result of a cybersecurity breach, could affect our sales and operations.
Internal system or service failures, or failures in the systems or services of third parties on which we rely, could disrupt our business and impair our ability to effectively provide our services and products to our customers, which could damage our reputation and adversely affect our business.
The nature of our business exposes us to potential legal proceedings or claims that could adversely affect our operating results. These claims could conceivably exceed the level of our liability insurance coverage.
Labor disputes could disrupt our ability to serve our customers and/or lead to higher labor costs.
Risks Related to Our Products and Manufacturing
We must obtain Underwriters Laboratories and other related certifications for our future generations of our products.
Compared to traditional Li-ion energy storage technologies, our cells and modules have less power density and round trip efficiency and may be considered inferior to competitors’ products.
We have limited manufacturing experience and could experience difficulty producing commercial volumes of the battery storage system, establishing manufacturing capacity to scale and in meeting potential cost savings and efficiencies from anticipated improvements to our manufacturing capabilities.
We may experience delays, disruptions, or quality control problems in our manufacturing operations.
We may not have sufficient insurance coverage to cover business continuity.

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Defects or performance problems in our products could result in loss of customers, reputational damage, and decreased revenue, facing warranty, indemnity, and product liability claims that may arise from defective products.
We are heavily dependent on third-party suppliers and contractors. Supply chain issues could adversely affect our operations and financial results.
If we elect to expand our production capacity by constructing one or more new manufacturing facilities, we may encounter challenges relating to the construction, management and operation of such facilities.
We could incur substantial costs as a result of violations of, or liabilities under, environmental laws.
Increased scrutiny from stakeholders and regulators regarding ESG practices and disclosures, including those related to sustainability and related disclosures could result in additional costs and risks.

Risks Related to Our Future Growth
If we fail to manage our recent and future growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of customer service, or adequately address competitive challenges.
Our growth prospects depend on our ability to capitalize on market opportunities.
We will require additional financing to achieve our long-term goals and a failure to obtain this capital on acceptable terms, or at all, may adversely impact our ability to support our business growth strategy.
If we fail to meet the covenants in our Senior Secured Term Loan Credit Agreement, we may be subject to default on the loan, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our planned expansion into new geographic markets or new product lines or services could subject us to additional business, financial, and competitive risks.
Our results of operations may fluctuate from quarter to quarter, which could make our future performance difficult to predict and could cause our results of operations for a particular period to fall below expectations, resulting in a decline in the price of our common stock.

Risks Related to Our United States Operations
The reduction, elimination or expiration of government subsidies and economic incentives related to renewable energy solutions could reduce demand for our technologies and harm our business.
Changes in the U.S. trade environment, including the imposition of import tariffs, could adversely affect the amount or timing of our revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
We have operations in the United States, which exposes us to multiple federal, state and local regulations.
Changes in applicable law, regulations or requirements, or our material failure to comply with any of them, can increase our costs and have other negative impacts on our business.
We are subject to complex and evolving laws, regulations, rules, standards and contractual obligations regarding data privacy and cybersecurity, which could increase the cost of doing business, compliance risks and potential liability.
We could be adversely affected by any violations of the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act, and other foreign anti-bribery laws, as well as violations against export controls and economic embargo regulations.

Risks Related to Intellectual Property
If we fail to protect, or incur significant costs in defending, our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, then our business and results of operations could be materially harmed.
Third parties may assert that we are infringing upon their intellectual property rights, which could divert management’s attention, cause us to incur significant costs, and prevent us from selling or using the technology to which such rights relate.

Risk Related to Our Securities
To the extent that any shares of common stock are issued upon exercise of any of the warrants, the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market would increase.
Provisions in our third amended and restated certificate of incorporation of the Company (the “Charter”) and Delaware law may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.
Provisions in our Charter may inhibit a takeover of us, which could limit the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for our common stock and could entrench management.
Our stock price may be volatile and may decline regardless of our operating performance.
Future resales of our common stock may cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

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There can be no assurance that our common stock will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.
We are a “smaller reporting company” and, because we have opted to use the reduced reporting requirements available to us, certain investors may find investing in our securities less attractive.
Risk Factors

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. Our business, prospects, financial condition, or operating results could be harmed by any of these risks, as well as other risks not known to us or that we consider immaterial as of the date of this Form 10-K. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and, as a result, you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We have a history of losses that casts substantial doubt as to our ability to continue as a going concern. We must deliver on our potential for significant business growth and improved manufacturing processes to achieve sustained, long-term profitability and long-term commercial success.
We have had net losses and negative operating cash flows each fiscal quarter since inception of our business. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we had $229.5 million and $229.8 million in net losses, respectively. We expect to continue to incur losses and experience negative operating cash flows for the foreseeable future, as we anticipate continued investment in the development and launch of product with outside capital at the expense of short-term profitability. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, the Company concluded that there was substantial doubt about its ability to continue to operate as a going concern for the 12 months following the issuance of these consolidated financial statements.
Although our available capital has increased substantially since our Merger through the issuance of convertible notes and other financing, we continue to have limited resources relative to certain of our competitors, especially certain Li-ion manufacturers that have a longer history, are part of large multinational corporations and are already operating at a profit. To achieve profitability as well as long-term commercial success, we must continue to execute our plan to expand our business, which will require us to deliver on our existing global sales pipeline in a timely manner, increase our production capacity, improve our cost profile, grow demand for our products, and seize new market opportunities by leveraging our proprietary technology and its manufacturing processes for novel solutions. Failure to do one or more of these things could prevent us from achieving sustained, long-term commercial success.
As a growth company in the early commercialization stage of its lifecycle, Eos is subject to inherent risks and uncertainties associated with the development of an enterprise. Our revenues may not grow as expected for a number of reasons, many of which are outside of our control, including a decline in global demand for battery storage products, increased competition, or our failure to continue to capitalize on growth opportunities. In addition, although we have achieved sales of our products to potential customers, it is not clear to what extent, if any, the products will be profitable and when. The costs of goods associated with production of our battery storage system are significant. While we are working to optimize our supply chain, improve the speed and efficiency of our manufacturing processes, and lower the cost of other input costs such as raw material and conversion costs, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in these efforts. If we are not able to sustain revenue growth, reduce cost and continue to raise the capital necessary to support operations, our failure to achieve or maintain profitability could negatively impact the value of our common stock. Even if we do achieve profitability when expected, we may be unable to sustain or increase our profitability in the future.

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In order to execute our development strategy, we have historically relied on outside capital through the issuance of equity, debt, and borrowings under financing arrangements (collectively “outside capital”) to fund our cost structure and expect to continue to rely on outside capital for the foreseeable future. While we believe we will eventually reach a scale of profitability to sustain our operations, there can be no assurance we will be able to achieve such profitability or do so in a manner that does not require our continued reliance on outside capital. Moreover, while we have historically been successful in raising outside capital, there can be no assurance we will be able to continue to obtain outside capital in the future or do so on terms that are acceptable to us.
We believe our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards will likely be substantially limited as a result of an “ownership change,” as defined in Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we had approximately $638.5 million and $485.4 million of net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards for U.S. federal tax purposes. Under U.S. federal income tax law, we generally would be able to use our NOL carryforwards (and certain related tax credits) to offset ordinary taxable income, thereby reducing our U.S. federal income tax liability, for up to 20 years from the year in which the losses were generated, after which time they will expire. In addition, as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we had approximately $228.3 million and $235.7 million in state NOL carryforwards (and certain related tax credits) which generally would be useable to offset future state taxable income for approximately 20 years from the year in which the losses are generated, depending on the state, after which time they will expire.
The rate at which we are able to utilize our NOL carryforwards will become subject to a limitation that can be very significant (and that will result in our NOL carryforwards expiring prior to their use) when we experience an “ownership change,” as determined under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code. A Section 382 ownership change generally occurs if a stockholder or a group of stockholders who are deemed to own at least 5% of our common stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. If an ownership change occurs, Section 382 generally would impose an annual limit on the amount of post-ownership change taxable income that may be offset with pre-ownership change NOL carryforwards equal to the product of the total value of our outstanding equity immediately prior to the ownership change (reduced by certain items specified in Section 382) and the U.S. federal long-term tax-exempt interest rate in effect at the time of the ownership change. A number of special and complex rules apply in calculating this Section 382 limitation.
While the complexity of Section 382 makes it difficult to determine whether and when an ownership change has occurred, and a formal study has not been performed, we believe that a Section 382 ownership change likely has occurred or will occur as a result of our capital raising efforts through equity financings during fiscal years 2022 and 2023. We believe this Section 382 limitation will likely substantially reduce the amount of federal and state NOLs that may be used by us before they expire. In addition, our ability to use our NOL carryforwards also is limited to the extent we fail to generate enough taxable income in the future before they expire. Existing and future Section 382 limitations and our inability to generate enough taxable income in the future could result in a substantial portion of our NOL carryforwards expiring before they are used. We have recorded a full valuation allowance for our deferred tax assets.

We identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting and we may identify additional material weaknesses in the future that may cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations or result in material misstatements of our financial statements. If we do not effectively remediate these material weaknesses or if we otherwise fail to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately and timely report our financial results.

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Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal controls over financial reporting designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP. Our management is likewise required, on a quarterly basis, to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal controls and to disclose any changes and material weaknesses identified through such evaluation in those internal controls. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal controls over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
Our management identified material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023 and 2022. See Item 9A, “Controls and Procedures,” in this Annual Report for information regarding the identified material weaknesses and our actions to date to remediate the material weaknesses. As a result of these material weaknesses, our management has concluded that our internal controls over financial reporting were not effective as of December 31, 2023.
We are taking steps to remediate these material weaknesses, which include hiring personnel with the depth of knowledge and experience to join our accounting and finance organization, and designing and implementing improved processes and internal controls. However, our efforts to remediate these material weaknesses may not be effective in preventing a future material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal controls over financial reporting. If we do not effectively remediate these material weaknesses or if we otherwise fail to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately and timely report our financial results, which could cause our reported financial results to be materially misstated, result in the loss of investor confidence and cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
We can give no assurance that the measures we have taken or plans to take in the future will remediate the material weaknesses identified or that any additional material weaknesses or restatements of financial results will not arise in the future due to a failure to implement and maintain adequate internal controls over financial reporting or circumvention of these controls.
Our business and financial results have and may continue to be adversely affected by the effects of sustained inflation and increased interest rates.
Inflation has the potential to adversely affect our liquidity, business, financial condition and results of operations by increasing our overall cost structure, particularly if we are unable to achieve commensurate increases in the prices that we charge our customers. The existence of sustained inflation in the economy has resulted in, and may continue to result in, higher interest rates and capital costs, increased shipping costs, supply shortages, increased costs of labor, weakening exchange rates and other similar effects. As interest rates rise or remain elevated to address inflation or otherwise, we may experience further increases in capital and other costs. Further, changes in monetary or other policies here and abroad to combat inflation may lead to an economic downturn in some of our markets. Although we may take measures to mitigate the impact of this inflation, if these measures are not effective, our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity could be materially adversely affected. Even if such measures are effective, the benefits of such measures may not be realized until after the costs of inflation have been incurred.
Current market conditions and recessionary pressures in one or more of our markets could impact our ability to grow our business.

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Over the last few years in the U.S. and globally, market and economic conditions have been challenging. Any negative impact on economic conditions and international markets, continued volatility or deterioration in the debt and equity capital markets, inflation, deflation or other adverse economic conditions may adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition. It may limit our ability to access the capital markets to meet liquidity and/or capital needs, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Ongoing uncertain economic and financial market conditions may also adversely affect the financial condition of our customers, suppliers and other business partners. When our customers’ financial conditions are adversely affected, it could materially and adversely affect our sales and financial results, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our common shares to decline. Our global business may be negatively affected by local economic conditions, including inflation, increasing labor costs, potential recession, and currency exchange rate fluctuations, which could adversely affect our cost to manufacture and provide our products and services and revenues generated through sales of such products and services. There is no guarantee that we will be able to fully absorb any such additional costs or revenue declines in the prices for our products and services.
The relatively recent commercialization of our products makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects.
Since our inception, we have sold a limited quantity of Eos Znyth DC battery systems to our customers. We began commercializing our products in mid-2018, and while our research and development activities successfully established the efficiency of our chemistry, we struggled to incorporate our proven technologies into an effective manufacturing design prior to 2018.
We continue to invest in the design and development of the next generation product, the Z3™ battery which builds off the same electrochemistry that has not fundamentally changed for the better part of a decade. The Z3 battery is designed to reduce cost and weight and improve manufacturability and system performance. The Eos Z3 transition is fully underway, and the first semi-automated battery manufacturing line is installed and has started commercial production. The Company started delivery of its Z3 battery modules in the third quarter of 2023.
Our success will depend on our ability to manufacture products at scale and low cost while timely meeting customers’ demands and overcome any negative perception in the market related to our historical manufacturing challenges, and we may not be able to generate sufficient customer confidence in our latest designs and ongoing product improvements and lower the cost due to economies of scale. Our inability to predict the extent of customer adoption of our proprietary technologies in the already-established traditional energy storage market makes it difficult to evaluate our profitability and future prospects.
Failure to deliver the benefits offered by our technologies, or the emergence of improvements to competing technologies, could reduce demand for our products and harm our business.
We believe that, compared to Li-ion batteries, our energy storage solutions offer significant benefits, including the use of widely-available and low-cost materials with no rare earth or toxic components, recyclability at end-of-life, an over twenty (20) year product life requiring minimal maintenance, and a wide thermal operating range that eliminates the need for fire suppression and HVAC, which would otherwise be required for use with Li-ion batteries.
The rates at which electricity is available from a customer’s local electric utility company is subject to change and any changes in such rates may affect the relative benefits of our energy storage systems. Further, if our manufacturing costs do not decrease to the extent we intend, or if our expectations regarding the operation, performance, maintenance and disposal of our products are not realized, we could have difficulty marketing our products as a superior alternative to already-established technologies and impact the market reputation and adaptability of our products. Developments of existing and new technologies could improve their cost and usability profile, reducing any relative benefits currently offered by our products which would negatively impact the likelihood of our products gaining market acceptance.
A decline in lithium prices may result in increased competition from traditional lithium-ion (“Li-ion”) batteries and adversely affect the demand for our products.

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Currently, global lithium available supply exceeds demand. Decreases in the price of lithium, a key component of traditional Li-ion batteries, may increase the competitiveness of the traditional Li-ion batteries relative to the zinc-based energy storage solutions we provide. Mineral prices fluctuate widely and are affected by numerous factors beyond our control such as global and regional supply and demand, interest rates, exchange rates, inflation or deflation, fluctuation in the value of the United States dollar and foreign currencies, and the political and economic conditions of mineral-producing countries throughout the world. The exact effect of these factors cannot be accurately predicted, but the combination of these factors may result in a decrease in lithium prices, which may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
As we endeavor to expand our business, we will incur significant costs and expenses, which could outpace our cash reserves. Unfavorable conditions or disruptions in the capital and credit markets may adversely impact business conditions and the availability of credit.
We expect to incur additional costs and expenses in the future related to the continued development and expansion of our business, including in connection with expanding our manufacturing capabilities to significantly increase production capacity, developing our products, maintaining and enhancing our research and development operations, expanding our sales, marketing, and business development activities in the United States and internationally, and growing our project management, field services and overall operational capabilities for delivering projects. We do not know whether we will be able to reduce our manufacturing cost and grow our revenue rapidly enough to absorb these costs or the extent of these expenses or their impact on our results of operations.
Disruptions in the global capital and credit markets as a result of an economic downturn, economic uncertainty, changing or increased regulation, or failures of significant financial institutions could adversely affect our customers’ ability to access capital and could adversely affect our access to liquidity needed for business in the future. Our business could be hurt if we are unable to obtain additional capital as required, resulting in a decrease in our revenues and profitability.
Our success depends on the continuing contributions of our key personnel, and the loss of services of any principal member of our management team could adversely affect our business.
We rely heavily on the services of our key executive officers. We are investing significant resources in developing new members of management as we complete our restructuring and strategic transformation, and the loss of services of any principal member of our management team could adversely affect our business. The competition for qualified personnel is intense in our industry, and we may not be successful in attracting and retaining enough qualified personnel to support our anticipated growth. We also cannot guarantee that any employee will remain employed with us for any definite period since all of our employees, including our key executive officers, serve at-will and may terminate their employment at any time for any reason.
The Company’s Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors is committed to working with the management to design compensation plans that attract, retain and motivate the Company’s executives and support business objectives that create shareholder value. In addition, the Board of Directors has implemented procedures to plan for the effective succession of senior management and key personnel. However, we still depend on the experience of our senior management team, including our chief executive officer, chief financial officer and chief accounting officer, and other key personnel, each of whom would be difficult to replace in the event of an unforeseen departure from the Company. Despite successfully managing recent turnover, the loss of any such personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business and our ability to implement our business strategy. All of our employees, including our senior management, are free to terminate their employment relationships with us at any time. We do not maintain key-person insurance for any of our employees, including senior management. In addition, changes and replacement, as well as transition in senior executive leadership could adversely affect our relationships with clients, customers, and employees. We must successfully integrate new key personnel whom we hire within our organization in order to achieve our operating objectives.

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Additionally, our ability to attract qualified personnel, including senior management and key technical personnel, is critical to the execution of our growth strategy. Competition for qualified senior management personnel and highly skilled individuals with technical expertise is extremely intense. We face and are likely to continue to face challenges identifying, hiring, and retaining qualified personnel in all areas of our business. In addition, integrating new employees into our team could prove disruptive to our operations, require substantial resources and management attention, and ultimately prove unsuccessful. Our failure to attract and retain qualified senior management and other key technical personnel could limit or delay our strategic efforts, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
The failure or breach of our network or IT systems, including as a result of a cybersecurity breach, could affect our sales and operations.
From time to time, we may face attempts by others to gain unauthorized access to our network or IT systems through various forms of the Internet or try to introduce malicious software to our network or IT systems, including our BMS. We or our products may be a target of computer hackers, organizations or malicious attackers who attempt to:
gain access to our systems, network or data centers or those of our customers;
steal proprietary information related to our business, products, employees, and customers; or
interrupt our infrastructure or those of our customers.
To date, no attempts have resulted in any material adverse impact to our business or operations; however, there can be no guarantee that such intrusions will not be material in the future. While we seek to detect and investigate all unauthorized attempts and attacks against our network and products, and to prevent their recurrence where practicable through changes to our internal processes and tools and/or changes to our products, we remain potentially vulnerable to additional known or unknown threats, such as, among other things, malware and computer virus attacks, ransomware attacks, social engineering attacks (including phishing attacks) or denial-of-service attacks. In addition to intentional third-party cybersecurity breaches, the integrity and confidentiality of Company and customer data may be compromised as a result of human error, fraud or malice on the part of our employees or third parties, product defects, software bugs, server malfunctions, software or hardware failure or other technological failures. Such threats are evolving, may be difficult for long periods of time, and may see their frequency increased and effectiveness enhanced by the use of artificial intelligence. Further, these risks may be heightened in connection with ongoing global conflicts such as the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine and the military conflict between Israel and Hamas. Cybersecurity breaches, whether successful or unsuccessful, and other IT system interruptions, including those resulting from human error and technological failures, could result in us incurring significant costs related to, for example, rebuilding internal systems, reduced inventory value, providing modifications to our products and services, defending against litigation, responding to regulatory inquiries or actions, paying damages, or taking other remedial steps with respect to third parties.
Our IT infrastructure is currently managed by a third party Managed Services Provider ("MSP"). While we regularly review the cybersecurity tools and other security protection provided by this MSP, and this MSP regularly runs intrusion and other security tests on services provided to us, there can be no guarantee that a failure or breach of such systems will not occur. While we generally perform cybersecurity diligence on our other key service providers, we do not control our service providers and our ability to monitor their cybersecurity is limited. Some of our service providers may store or have access to our data and may not have effective controls, processes, or practices to protect our information from loss, unauthorized disclosure, unauthorized use or misappropriation or cybersecurity breaches. A vulnerability in our service providers’ software or systems, a failure of our service providers’ safeguards, policies or procedures, or a cybersecurity breach affecting any of these third parties could harm our business.
We operate a few IT systems throughout our business that could fail for a variety of reasons, including the threats of unauthorized intrusions and attackers. If such failures were to occur, we may not be able to sufficiently recover to avoid the loss of data or any adverse impact on our operations that are dependent on such IT systems. This could result in lost sales as we may not be able to meet the demands for our product.

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Furthermore, because our IT systems are essential for the exchange of information both internally and in communicating with third parties, including our suppliers and manufacturers, cybersecurity breaches could potentially lead to the unauthorized release of sensitive, confidential or personal data or information, improper use of our systems, or, unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification or destruction of information or defective products. If these cybersecurity breaches continue, our operations and ability to communicate both internally and with third parties may be negatively impacted. Additionally, if we try to remediate our cybersecurity problems, we could face significant unplanned costs or capital investments and any damage or interruption could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition, and results of operations. Additionally, we cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be adequate for data security liabilities actually incurred, that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that our insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim.
Internal system or service failures, or failures in the systems or services of third parties on which we rely, could disrupt our business and impair our ability to effectively provide our services and products to our customers, which could damage our reputation and adversely affect our business.
Any system or service disruptions, including to our IT systems managed by a MSP, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated, could materially and adversely affect our business. We, and the service providers on which we rely, are also subject to systems failures, including network, software or hardware failures, whether caused by us, third-party service providers, cybersecurity threats, malicious insiders, natural disasters, power shortages, terrorist attacks, pandemics or other events, which could cause loss of data and interruptions or delays in our business, cause us to incur remediation costs, subject us to claims and damage our reputation. In addition, the failure or disruption of our communications, or those of our service providers, could cause us to interrupt or suspend our operations or otherwise adversely affect our business. Our property and business interruption insurance may be inadequate to compensate us for all losses resulting from any system or operational failure or disruption.
The nature of our business exposes us to potential legal proceedings or claims that could adversely affect our operating results. These claims could conceivably exceed the level of our liability insurance coverage.
We are a party to lawsuits in the normal course of our business. Litigation can be expensive, lengthy and disruptive to normal business operations. Moreover, the results of complex legal proceedings are difficult to predict. Responding to lawsuits brought against us, or legal actions that we may initiate, can be expensive and time-consuming. Unfavorable outcomes from these claims and/or lawsuits could adversely affect our business, results of operations, or financial condition and cash flows, and we could incur substantial monetary liability and/or be required to change our business practices. See Part I, Item 3, “Legal Proceedings.”
Our business may expose us to claims for personal injury, death or property damage resulting from the use of our products or from employee related matters. Additionally, we could be subject to potential litigation associated with compliance with various laws and governmental regulations at the federal, state or local levels, such as those relating to the protection of persons with disabilities, employment, health, safety, security and other regulations under which we operate.
We carry comprehensive insurance, subject to deductibles, at levels we believe are sufficient to cover existing and future claims made during the respective policy periods. However, we may be exposed to multiple claims, and, as a result, could incur significant out-of-pocket costs before reaching the deductible amount, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the cost of such insurance policies may increase significantly upon renewal of those policies as a result of general rate increases for the type of insurance we carry as well as our historical experience and experience in our industry. Although we have not experienced any material losses that were not covered by insurance, our existing or future claims may exceed the coverage level of our insurance, and such insurance may not continue to be available on economically reasonable terms, or at all. If we are required to pay significantly higher premiums for insurance, are not able to maintain insurance coverage at affordable rates or must pay amounts in excess of claims covered by our insurance, then we could experience higher costs that could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Labor disputes could disrupt our ability to serve our customers and/or lead to higher labor costs.

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As of December 31, 2023, we had 420 full-time employees, none of whom are represented by unions or covered by collective bargaining agreements. If a union sought to organize any of our employees, such organizing efforts or collective bargaining negotiations could potentially lead to work stoppages and/or slowdowns or strikes by certain of our employees, which could adversely affect our ability to serve our customers. Further, settlement of actual or threatened labor disputes or an increase in the number of our employees covered by collective bargaining agreements can have unknown effects on our labor costs, productivity and flexibility.
Risks Related to Our Products and Manufacturing
We must obtain Underwriters Laboratories ("UL") and other related certifications for our future generations of product.
Our existing generation of battery systems has received Underwriters Laboratories ("UL") 1973 certification and has been tested for UL 9540A. Based on these North American certifications, we also intend to expand our current generation of battery systems product certification to other national standards such as European Conformity (“CE”) marking in the European Union and the international certification of the International Electrotechnical Commission (“IEC”). We also intend to obtain the UL certification and all applicable safety standards for our future products. Failure to obtain UL, IEC or CE certification would have a significant impact on our revenues, as such certifications are required by most of our customers. As Battery Storage is a relatively new market segment, additional rules will be introduced and regulation changes will occur. We must continue to adapt and ensure conformity to new standards and regulations introduced in the market.
Compared to traditional Li-ion energy storage technologies, our cells and modules have less power density and round trip efficiency and may be considered inferior to competitors’ products.
While the energy density of the Eos Z3™ battery enclosure product is significantly improved compared to the Eos Gen 2.3 enclosure product, and we believe that for certain installation sites the Eos Z3 systems may now equal Li-ion energy density per acre of land, traditional Li-ion cells and modules continue to offer higher power density and a lower self-discharge rate than Eos cells and modules. The differences in power density and energy efficiency become lower when comparing full size Li-ion systems to Eos Z3 systems due to the differences in auxiliary loads required by Li-ion systems and safety spacing between enclosures required by Li-ion, however, if customers were to place greater value on power density and efficient power delivery on a cell and module basis, then we could have difficulty positioning our batteries as a viable or compelling alternative to traditional Li-ion batteries and our business would suffer.
We have limited manufacturing experience and could experience difficulty in producing commercial volumes of the battery storage system, establishing manufacturing capacity to scale and in meeting potential cost savings and efficiencies from anticipated improvements to our manufacturing capabilities.
We have limited experience in commercial manufacturing of the battery storage system. On August 21, 2019, we entered into a joint venture agreement with Holtec and formed Hi-Power, which was owned 51% by Holtec and 49% by us. We acquired the 51% equity interest owned by Holtec in April 2021. Because we have limited prior commercial manufacturing experience, we may incur manufacturing inefficiencies, delays or interruptions. Our current manufacturing and testing processes do not require significant technological or production process expertise. However, any change in our processes could cause one or more production errors, requiring a temporary suspension or delay in our production line until the errors can be researched, identified, and properly addressed and rectified. This may occur particularly as we introduce new products, modify our engineering and production techniques, and/or expand our capacity. In addition, our failure to maintain appropriate quality assurance processes could result in increased product failures, loss of customers, increased warranty reserve, decreased production, and logistical costs and delays. Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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To date, we have only manufactured batteries in limited quantities for commercial customers. The output achieved to date is a fraction of what the Company expects will be necessary for full commercialization and to meet the demand we see in the market for our product. The manufacturing process for commercial scale is being refined and improved. There are risks associated with scaling up manufacturing to commercial volumes including, among others, technical or other problems with process scale-up, process reproducibility, stability issues, quality consistency, timely availability of raw materials and cost overruns.  There is no assurance that we will be successful in establishing a larger-scale commercial manufacturing process that achieves our objectives for manufacturing capacity and cost per battery, in a timely manner or at all.  If we are unable to produce sufficient quantities of product for commercialization on a timely basis and in a cost-effective manner, the Company's commercialization efforts would be impaired which could materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.
We may experience delays, disruptions, or quality control problems in our manufacturing operations.
Our operations require significant amounts of certain components and raw materials. We deploy a continuous, company wide process to source the components and raw materials from a few suppliers. If we are unable to source these components or raw materials, our operations may be disrupted, or we could experience a delay or halt in certain of our manufacturing operations. We believe that our supply management and production practices are based on an appropriate balancing of the foreseeable risks and the costs of alternative practices. Nonetheless, reduced availability or interruption in supplies, whether resulting from more stringent regulatory requirements, supplier financial condition, increases in duties and tariff costs, disruptions in transportation, an outbreak of a severe public health pandemic, severe weather, the occurrence or threat of wars, and other geopolitical conflict, including the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war, inflation, or increased interest rates could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. For example, we have experienced supply chain issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including but not limited to suppliers utilizing force majeure provisions under existing contracts.
Some of our customers may experience project delays as a result of delays in site selection and preparation, procedures of obtaining necessary permissions and establishing grid connections. These delays have impacted, and may, from time to time, continue to impact the timing of our product deliveries and our results of operations.
We may not have sufficient insurance coverage to cover business continuity.
We rely on a single manufacturing site in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania to manufacture the products to our customers. As a result, a sustained or repeated interruption in the manufacturing of our products due to labor shortage, fire, flood, war, pandemic, or natural disasters may interfere with our ability to manufacture our products and fulfill customers’ demands in a timely manner. Failure to manufacture our products and meet customer demands would impair our ability to generate revenues which would adversely affect our financial results.
Defects or performance problems in our products could result in loss of customers, reputational damage, and decreased revenue, facing warranty, indemnity, and product liability claims that may arise from defective products.
Since our inception, our business objectives have been focused on producing a safe, low-cost grid-scale energy storage solution to meet the increasing demand for and adoption of renewable energy generation assets. Our Gen 2.3 battery design has, after years of research and prototype development, resulted in robust control of cell-to-cell spacing using a method which can easily be scaled for mass manufacturing production.

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Although our products meet our stringent quality requirements, they may contain undetected errors or defects, especially when first introduced or when new generations of products are released. Errors, defects, or poor performance can arise due to design flaws, defects in raw materials or components or manufacturing difficulties, which can affect the quality of our products. In addition, our BMS software may contain errors, bugs, vulnerabilities (including to cyber attacks), design defects or technical limitations. Some errors, bugs or vulnerabilities inherently may be difficult to detect. Any actual or perceived errors, bugs, vulnerabilities, defects, or poor performance in our products could result in the replacement or recall of our products, shipment delays, rejection of our products, damage to our reputation, legal claims, lost revenue, diversion of our engineering personnel from our product development efforts, and increases in customer service and support costs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Furthermore, defective components may give rise to warranty, indemnity, or product liability claims against us that exceed any revenue or profit we receive from the affected products. Generally, our product comes with an initial two (2) year manufacturing warranty. We also offer customers an extended performance warranty of up to twenty (20) years at an additional cost to the customer. The price charged for any such extended warranty is based on the use case of the customer and the additional performance that such customer desires. For extended warranties, this may require system augmentation or battery replacements, which would be provided at no additional charge beyond the price of the extended warranty paid by such customer.
While we accrued reserves for warranty claims, our estimated warranty costs for previously sold products may change to the extent future products are not compatible with earlier generation products under warranty. Our warranty accruals are based on various assumptions, which are based on a short operating history. As a result, these assumptions could prove to be materially different from the actual performance of our systems, causing us to incur substantial unanticipated expense to repair or replace defective products in the future or to compensate customers for defective products. Our failure to accurately predict future claims could result in unexpected volatility in, and have a material adverse effect on, our financial condition.
If one of our products were to cause injury to someone or cause property damage, due to a result of product malfunctions, defects, or improper installation, we could be exposed to product liability claims. We could incur significant costs and liabilities if we are sued and if damages are awarded against us. Further, any product liability claim we face could be expensive to defend and could divert management’s attention. The successful assertion of a product liability claim against us could result in potentially significant monetary damages, penalties or fines, subject us to adverse publicity, damage our reputation and competitive position, and adversely affect sales of our products. In addition, product liability claims, injuries, defects, or other problems experienced by other companies in the battery industry could lead to unfavorable market conditions for the industry as a whole and may have an adverse effect on our ability to attract new customers, thus harming our growth and financial performance.
We are heavily dependent on third-party suppliers and contractors. Supply chain issues could adversely affect our operations and financial results.
We are heavily dependent on third-party suppliers and contractors and their ability to deliver sufficient quantities of key components, products and services at reasonable prices and in time for us to meet schedules for the delivery of our products and services. In addition, our operations depend on our ability to anticipate and our suppliers’ ability to fulfill, our needs for sufficient quantities of key components and products. Given the diverse distribution of our suppliers and contract manufacturers, and the long lead times required to manufacture, assemble and deliver our products, problems could arise in production, planning and inventory management, and regulatory compliance that could seriously harm our business. Suppliers may face global supply chain challenges, such as transportation delays or reduced access to raw materials, and our business could be negatively impacted if suppliers are forced to reduce their normal operations.
If we elect to expand our production capacity by constructing one or more new manufacturing facilities, we may encounter challenges relating to the construction, management and operation of such facilities.

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We currently operate our manufacturing facility located in Pennsylvania. We may, however, seek to construct one or more manufacturing facilities designed to meet our product supply needs in the future. Although we currently believe that we can expand our Turtle Creek facility to a 1.2 gigawatt-hour (“GWh”) manufacturing facility, we cannot provide any assurances that we would be able to successfully establish or operate a new manufacturing facility in a timely or profitable manner, or at all, or within any budget that might be forecasted for such a project. The construction of any such facility would require significant capital expenditures and result in significantly increased fixed costs. If we are unable to transition manufacturing operations to any such new facilities in a cost-efficient and timely manner, then we may experience disruptions in operations, which could negatively impact our business and financial results. Further, if the demand for our products decreases or if we do not produce the expected output after any such new facility is operational, we may not be able to spread a significant amount of our fixed costs over the production volume, thereby increasing our product unit fixed cost, which would have a negative impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to expand our manufacturing capacity would also greatly depend on our ability to hire, train and retain an adequate number of manufacturing employees, in particular employees with the appropriate level of knowledge, background and skills. Should we be unable to hire such employees, our business and financial results could be negatively impacted.
We could incur substantial costs as a result of violations of, or liabilities under, environmental laws.
Our properties, operations and the products we manufacture are subject to a number of environmental, health and safety laws and regulations in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. These laws and regulations govern, among other things, air emissions, water discharges, handling and disposal of solid and hazardous substances and wastes, soil and groundwater contamination, employee health and safety and the content of products. Under certain of these laws and regulations, we may be subject to joint and several liability for environmental investigations and remediation, including sites at which waste we generated was disposed, even if the contamination was not caused by us or was lawful at the time it occurred. Our failure to comply with these environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including failing to obtain any necessary permits, could cause us to incur substantial civil or criminal fines or penalties or enforcement actions, including regulatory or judicial orders enjoining or curtailing our operations or requiring us to conduct or fund remedial or corrective measures, install pollution control equipment or perform other actions. The future identification of presently unidentified environmental conditions, more vigorous enforcement by regulatory agencies, enactment of more stringent laws, regulations or permit requirements, including relating to climate change, or other unanticipated events may arise in the future and give rise to environmental liabilities, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Increased scrutiny from stakeholders and regulators regarding environmental, social and governance ("ESG") practices and disclosures, including those related to climate change and sustainability, could result in additional costs and risks.
Companies across many industries are facing increasing scrutiny relating to their environmental, social and governance practices and disclosures. Our failure to satisfy evolving stakeholder expectations for ESG practices and reporting may potentially harm our reputation and impact employee retention, customer relationships and access to capital and financial markets. We have established goals related to ESG matters. These goals reflect our current plans and aspirations and are not guarantees that we will be able to achieve them. Our efforts to accomplish and accurately report on these goals and objectives present numerous operational, reputational, financial, legal and other risks, any of which could have a material negative impact, including on our reputation and the market price of our common stock.

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Further, certain institutional investors, investor advocacy groups, investment funds, creditors, influential financial markets participants and other stakeholders have become increasingly focused on companies' ESG issues in evaluating their investments and business relationships. Certain organizations also provide ESG ratings, scores and benchmarking studies that assess companies’ ESG practices. Although there are no universally accepted standards for such ratings, scores or benchmarking studies, they are used by some investors to inform their investment and voting decisions. It is possible that our future shareholders or organizations that report on, rate or score ESG practices will not be satisfied with our ESG performance. There are also an increasing number of anti-ESG initiatives that may conflict with other regulatory requirements or our stakeholders’ expectations. Unfavorable press about or ratings or assessments of our ESG practices, regardless of whether or not we comply with applicable legal requirements, may lead to negative investor sentiment toward us, which could have a negative impact on our share price and our access to and cost of capital.
In addition, the adoption of new ESG-related regulations applicable to our business, or pressure from key stakeholders to comply with additional voluntary ESG-related initiatives or frameworks, could require us to make substantial investments in ESG matters, which could impact the results of our operations. Decisions or related investments in this regard could affect consumer perceptions as to our brand. Furthermore, if our competitors’ corporate responsibility or ESG performance is perceived to be better than ours, potential or current investors may elect to invest with our competitors instead. We could also fail, or be perceived to fail, in our achievement of any announced ESG initiatives, goals or objectives, or we could be criticized for the scope of such initiatives, goals or objectives. If we fail to satisfy the expectations of investors and other key stakeholders or our initiatives, goals or objectives are not executed as planned, our reputation, financial results and market price of our common stock and access to and cost of capital could be materially and adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Future Growth
If we fail to manage our recent and future growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of customer service, or adequately address competitive challenges.
We have experienced significant growth in recent periods and intend to continue to expand our business significantly within existing and new markets. This growth has placed, and any future growth may place, a significant strain on our management, operational, and financial infrastructure. We will be required to expand, train, and manage our growing employee base and scale and otherwise improve our information technology (“IT”) infrastructure in tandem with that headcount growth. Our management will also be required to maintain and expand our relationships with customers, suppliers, and other third parties and attract new customers and suppliers, as well as manage multiple geographic locations.
Our current and planned operations, personnel, customer support, IT, information systems, and other systems and procedures might be inadequate to support future growth and may require us to make additional unanticipated investments in its infrastructure. Our success and ability to further scale our business will depend, in part, on our ability to manage these changes in a cost-effective and efficient manner. If we cannot manage our growth, we may be unable to take advantage of market opportunities, execute our business strategies, or respond to competitive pressures. This could also result in declines in quality or customer satisfaction, increased costs, difficulties in introducing new offerings, or other operational difficulties. Any failure to effectively manage growth could adversely impact our business and reputation.
Our growth prospects depend on our ability to capitalize on market opportunities.
We believe that several market opportunities could help fuel our growth prospects, including the following:
the pervasiveness of electric grid congestion, creating an opportunity to deploy batteries to reduce the peak energy usage of a customer in specific locations where infrastructure constraints create a need for transmission and/or distribution upgrades;
the demand for co-location of battery assets on solar or wind farms to store off-peak intermittent renewable energy production and provide on-peak energy at the higher price of alternative energy;
C&I end users’ adoption of alternative energy generation technologies to supplement or replace on-the-grid energy usage; and

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carbon reduction targets and lower prices from renewables may be forcing earlier retirement of conventional energy sources and drive demand for energy storage.
If these expected market opportunities do not materialize, or if we fail to capitalize on them, then we may not be able to meet our growth projections.
We will require additional financing to achieve our long-term goals and a failure to obtain this capital on acceptable terms may adversely impact our ability to support our business growth strategy.
We intend to continue to make investments to support our business and will require significant additional funds. In particular, we will require additional funds to enhance existing products and develop new products, expand our operations domestically and internationally, including our sales and marketing organizations and our presence outside of the United States, improve our infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses, technologies, products and other assets. Accordingly, we anticipate that equity or debt financings to secure additional funds will be necessary to support our business strategy. If we raise additional funds through future issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our common stock. Any debt financing that we may secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities. We may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing when we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth, scale our infrastructure, develop product enhancements and to respond to business challenges could be significantly impaired, and our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.
If we fail to meet the covenants in our Senior Secured Term Loan Credit Agreement, we may be subject to default on the loan, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
The Senior Secured Term Loan contains customary affirmative and negative covenants, which limit the Company’s and its subsidiaries’ ability to incur indebtedness, make restricted payments, including cash dividends on its common stock, make certain investments, loans and advances, enter into mergers and acquisitions, sell, assign, transfer or otherwise dispose of its assets, enter into transactions with its affiliates and engage in sale and leaseback transactions, among other restrictions. The Senior Secured Term Loan also includes a minimum financial liquidity covenant. The minimum financial liquidity covenant requires that the Company have enough available liquidity as of the last day of each fiscal quarter to meet the Interest Escrow Required Amount (as defined in the Senior Secured Term Loan), which is calculated as the aggregate amount of the four immediately following interest payments on loans under the Senior Secured Term Loan. While the Company was in compliance with this covenant as of December 31, 2023, and expects to remain in compliance as of March 31, 2024, absent the Company’s ability to secure additional outside capital, the Company may be unable to remain in compliance with this covenant beginning on June 30, 2024, and thereafter. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to secure additional outside capital in order to satisfy the minimum financial liquidity covenant on terms acceptable to the Company, on a timely basis, or at all. In the event the Company is unable to remain in compliance with the minimum financial liquidity covenant and the other covenants under the Senior Secured Term Loan, and the Company is further unable to cure such noncompliance or secure a waiver, the Lender - Atlas Credit Partners (ACP) Post Oak Credit I LLC (Atlas) may, at its discretion, exercise any and all of its existing rights and remedies, which may include, among other things, entering into a forbearance agreement with the Company and/or asserting its rights in the Company’s assets securing the Senior Secured Term Loan. Moreover, the Company’s other lenders may exercise similar rights and remedies under the cross-default provisions of their respective borrowing arrangements with the Company. See Note 12, Borrowings to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Our planned expansion into new geographic markets or new product lines or services could subject us to additional business, financial, and competitive risks.

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During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we primarily sold our products in the United States. We have in the past, and may in the future, evaluate opportunities to expand into new geographic markets and introduce new product offerings and services that are a natural extension of our existing business. We also may from time to time engage in acquisitions of businesses or product lines with the potential to strengthen our market position, enable us to enter attractive markets, expand our technological capabilities, or provide synergy opportunities.
Our success operating in these new geographic or product markets, or in operating any acquired business, will depend on a number of factors, including our ability to develop solutions to address the requirements of the electric utility industry and C&I end users, our timely qualification and certification of new products, our ability to manage increased manufacturing capacity and production, and our ability to identify and integrate any acquired businesses.
Further, any additional markets that we may enter could have different characteristics from the markets in which we currently sell products, and our success will depend on our ability to adapt properly to these differences. These differences may include regulatory requirements, including tax laws, trade laws, labor regulations, tariffs, export quotas, customs duties, or other trade restrictions, limited or unfavorable intellectual property protection, international, political or economic conditions, restrictions on the repatriation of earnings, longer sales cycles, warranty expectations, product return policies and cost, performance and compatibility requirements. In addition, expanding into new geographic markets will increase our exposure to presently existing and new risks, such as fluctuations in the value of foreign currencies and difficulties and increased expenses in complying with United States and foreign laws, regulations, and trade standards, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (the “FCPA”).
Failure to develop and introduce these new products successfully into the market, to successfully integrate acquired businesses or to otherwise manage the risks and challenges associated with our potential expansion into new product and geographic markets, could adversely affect our revenues and our ability to sustain profitability.
Our results of operations may fluctuate from quarter to quarter, which could make our future performance difficult to predict and could cause our results of operations for a particular period to fall below expectations, resulting in a decline in the price of our common stock.
Revenue from our battery sales is primarily recorded upon transfer of ownership of the product to the customer. Under our customer contracts, this transfer typically takes place upon shipment of the battery from our manufacturing facility but, in some instances, occurs upon delivery to a customer site or, even more infrequently, when commercial operation commences. Because our revenues are generally derived from sales of hardware that may take many months to manufacture and prepare for delivery, such revenue can come in peaks and troughs based on the underlying customer arrangements. As a result, our quarterly results of operations are difficult to predict and may fluctuate significantly in the future based on the timing of product deliveries.

Risks Related to Our United States Operations
The reduction, elimination or expiration of government subsidies and economic incentives related to renewable energy solutions could reduce demand for our technologies and harm our business.
To promote renewable energy generation and consumption, federal, state, local and foreign government bodies provide incentives to owners, end users, distributors, system integrators and manufacturers of alternative energy systems in the form of rebates, tax credits and other financial incentives such as system performance payments, issuance of renewable energy credits associated with renewable energy generation and exclusion of certain renewable energy systems from property tax assessments.

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Our business relies, in part, on the co-location of battery assets with solar and wind technologies. The market for on-grid applications, where solar or wind power is used to supplement a customer’s electricity purchased from the utility network or sold to a utility under tariff, often depends in large part on the availability and size of government and economic incentives that vary by geographic market. The reduction, elimination or expiration of government subsidies and economic incentives for on-grid renewable electricity may negatively affect the competitiveness of alternative electricity generation relative to conventional and nonrenewable sources of electricity and could harm or halt the growth of the alternative electricity industries. Because our C&I end user sales are generally expected to be made into the on-grid market, these changes could harm our business. For example, the Inflation Reduction Act enacted in August 2022 allows owners of new batteries to claim an ITC of between 30% and 70% during 2023 through a period that extends at least into the 2030s and possibly longer. The tax credit amount depends on the location of the battery and amount of domestic content. Companies should have an incentive to buy US-made batteries to qualify for a higher tax credit. A condition to claim tax credits at these levels is the same wages that are paid on federal construction projects must be paid to mechanics and laborers who work at the project site and lay down yard during construction and for the five years after on alterations and repairs, and qualified apprentices must be used during the same periods for as much as 15% of total labor hours.
The Inflation Reduction Act also allows manufacturers of certain battery components made in the United States to claim tax credits. The Internal Revenue Service will pay such manufacturers the tax credit amounts in cash for the first five tax years after the manufacturer starts producing. The tax credits for manufacturers start phasing down in amount after 2029 and end after 2032.
Both sets of tax credits are expected to increase demand for batteries and encourage more US domestic manufacturing of batteries. If in the future, Congress were to repeal or cut back the incentives, it could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
In general, subsidies and incentives may expire on a particular date, end when the allocated funding is exhausted or be reduced or terminated as renewable energy adoption rates increase or as a result of legal challenges, the adoption of new statutes or regulations or the passage of time. These reductions or terminations often occur without warning.
In addition, several jurisdictions have adopted renewable portfolio standards, which mandate that a certain portion of electricity delivered by utilities to customers each year must come from renewable energy resources. Utilities must either generate the renewable electricity themselves or buy renewable energy credits ("REC"s) from independent generators who have been awarded them for generating renewable electricity. Utilities may buy such RECs bundled with renewable electricity. An REC allows the utility to add this electricity to its renewable portfolio requirement total without actually expending the capital for generating facilities. However, there can be no assurances that such policies will continue.
If subsidies and incentives applicable to alternative energy implementation or usage are reduced or eliminated, or the regulatory landscape otherwise becomes less favorable, then there could be reduced demand for alternative energy solutions, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. See Part I, Item I - Business - Regulations for further discussion of government programs and incentives.
Changes in the U.S. trade environment, including the imposition of import tariffs, could adversely affect the amount or timing of our revenues, results of operations or cash flows.
We currently procure the felt required for our batteries and the electrical cables for the Eos Cube™ from China, as we believe that the materials procured from our Chinese suppliers currently have the best overall performance and price compared to domestic alternatives. Trade tensions between the United States and China have led to certain increased tariffs and trade restrictions. There can be no guarantee that these developments will not negatively impact the price of the felt used in our products. We believe we could obtain a similar performing felt and electrical cabling in the United States, but such sources would likely also charge a higher cost than our current suppliers, which would negatively impact our gross margins. It is difficult to predict what further trade-related actions governments may take, which may include additional or increased tariffs and trade restrictions, and we may be unable to quickly and effectively react to such actions, which could result in supply shortages and increased costs.

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We have operations in the United States, which exposes us to multiple federal, state and local regulations. Changes in applicable law, regulations or requirements, or our material failure to comply with any of them, can increase our costs and have other negative impacts on our business.
Applicable laws and requirements address multiple aspects of our operations, such as worker safety, consumer rights, privacy, employee benefits and more, and can often have different requirements in different jurisdictions. Changes in these requirements, or any material failure to comply with them, could increase our costs, affect our reputation, limit our business, drain management’s time and attention or otherwise, generally impact our operations in adverse ways.
We are subject to complex and evolving laws, regulations, rules, standards and contractual obligations regarding data privacy and cybersecurity, which could increase the cost of doing business, compliance risks and potential liability.
We are subject to complex and evolving laws, regulations, rules, standards and contractual obligations governing data privacy and cybersecurity and any failure to comply with these laws, regulations, rules, standards and contractual obligations could expose us to liability and/or reputational damage. Compliance with these laws, regulations, rules and standards may require us to change our policies, procedures and technology for cybersecurity, which could, among other things, make us more vulnerable to operational failures and to monetary penalties for breach of such laws, regulations, rules and standards.
In the U.S., there are numerous federal, state and local data privacy and cybersecurity laws and regulations governing the collection, sharing, use, retention, disclosure, security, storage, transfer and other processing of personal information. At the federal level, we are subject to, among other laws and regulations, the rules and regulations promulgated under the authority of the Federal Trade Commission (which has the authority to regulate and enforce against unfair or deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce, including acts and practices with respect to data privacy and cybersecurity). Moreover, the U.S. Congress has recently considered, and is currently considering, various proposals for more comprehensive data privacy and cybersecurity legislation, to which we may be subject if passed. At the U.S. state level, we may be subject to laws and regulations such as the California Consumer Privacy Act as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act (collectively, the “CCPA”), which broadly defines personal information and gives California residents expanded privacy rights and protections, such as affording them the right to access and request deletion of their information and to opt out of certain sharing and sales of personal information. Numerous other states also have enacted, or are in the process of enacting or considering, comprehensive state-level data privacy and cybersecurity laws and regulations that share similarities with the CCPA. Moreover, laws in all 50 U.S. states require businesses to provide notice under certain circumstances to consumers whose personal information has been disclosed as a result of a data breach.
Further, while we strive to publish and prominently display privacy policies that are accurate, comprehensive, and compliant with applicable laws, regulations, rules and industry standards, we cannot ensure that our privacy policies and other statements regarding our practices will be sufficient to protect us from claims, proceedings, liability or adverse publicity relating to data privacy and cybersecurity. Although we endeavor to comply with our privacy policies, we may at times fail to do so or be alleged to have failed to do so. The publication of our privacy policies and other documentation that provide promises and assurances about data privacy and cybersecurity can subject us to potential government or legal action if they are found to be deceptive, unfair, or misrepresentative of our actual practices. Any concerns about our data privacy and cybersecurity practices, even if unfounded, could damage our reputation and adversely affect our business.

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Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our privacy policies, or applicable data privacy and cybersecurity laws, regulations, rules, standards or contractual obligations, or any compromise of security that results in unauthorized access to, or unauthorized loss, destruction, use, modification, acquisition, disclosure, release or transfer of personal information, may result in requirements to modify or cease certain operations or practices, the expenditure of substantial costs, time and other resources, proceedings or actions against us, legal liability, governmental investigations, enforcement actions, claims, fines, judgments, awards, penalties, sanctions and costly litigation (including class actions). Any of the foregoing could harm our reputation, distract our management and technical personnel, increase our costs of doing business, adversely affect the demand for our products and services, and ultimately result in the imposition of liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We could be adversely affected by any violations of the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act, and other foreign anti-bribery laws, as well as violations against export controls and economic embargo regulations.
The FCPA prohibits companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Other countries in which we operate also have anti-bribery laws, some of which prohibit improper payments to government and non-government persons and entities. Our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws. However, we currently operate in and intend to further expand into, many parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree and, in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. In addition, due to the level of regulation in our industry and related energy industries, our entry into certain jurisdictions may require substantial government contact where norms can differ from U.S. standards. Although we expect to maintain strict internal control policies and procedures designed to guard against improper conduct, there can be no guarantee that our employees, agents, and business partners will not take actions in violation of our internal control policies. In the event that we believe or have reason to believe that our employees or agents have or may have violated applicable laws, including anti-corruption laws, we may be required to investigate or have outside counsel investigate the relevant facts and circumstances, and detecting, investigating and resolving actual or alleged violations can be expensive and require significant time and attention from senior management. Any violation of U.S. federal and state and non-U.S. laws, regulations and policies could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil and/or criminal penalties, and curtailment of operations in the United States or other applicable jurisdictions. In addition, actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation and ability to do business. Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Furthermore, we are subject to the export controls and economic embargo rules and regulations of the United States, including, but not limited to, the Export Administration Regulations and trade sanctions against embargoed countries, which are administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control within the Department of the Treasury, as well as the laws and regulations administered by the Department of Commerce. These regulations limit our ability to market, sell, distribute or otherwise transfer our products or technology to prohibited countries or persons. While we do not conduct business with sanctioned and embargoed countries and we expect to maintain strict internal controls policies and procedures designed to guard against improper conduct, a determination that we have failed to comply, whether knowingly or inadvertently, may result in substantial penalties, including fines and enforcement actions and civil and/or criminal sanctions, the disgorgement of profits and the imposition of a court-appointed monitor, as well as the denial of export privileges, and may have an adverse effect on our reputation.

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Risks Related to Intellectual Property
If we fail to protect, or incur significant costs in defending, our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, then our business and results of operations could be materially harmed.
Our success depends to a significant degree on our ability to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We rely on a combination of patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret and unfair competition laws, as well as confidentiality and other contractual provisions with our customers, suppliers, employees, and others, to establish and protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. Our ability to enforce these rights is subject to general litigation risks, as well as uncertainty as to the enforceability of our intellectual property rights in various countries. When we seek to enforce our rights, we may be subject to claims that our intellectual property rights are invalid or not enforceable. Our assertion of intellectual property rights may result in another party seeking to assert claims against us, which could harm our business. Our inability to enforce intellectual property rights under any of these circumstances would likely harm our competitive position and business.
We have been issued patents in, or have patent applications pending in the United States, North America, Europe, South America, Asia and Australia. We cannot guarantee that any of our pending applications will be approved or that our existing and future intellectual property rights will be sufficiently broad to protect our proprietary technology, and any failure to obtain such approvals or finding that our intellectual property rights are invalid or unenforceable could force us to, among other things, rebrand or redesign our affected products. In countries where we have not applied for patent protection or where effective intellectual property protection is not available to the same extent as in the United States, we may be at greater risk that our proprietary rights will be misappropriated, infringed, or otherwise violated.
Our intellectual property may be stolen or infringed upon, misappropriated or otherwise violated. Despite our implementation of security measures, our IT systems and those of our service providers are vulnerable to circumstances beyond our reasonable control which may lead to the theft of our intellectual property or trade secrets or business disruption, including inappropriate retention or disclosure of trade secrets by current or former employees. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss or damage to our data or an inappropriate disclosure of confidential information, it could cause significant damage to our reputation, affect our relationships with our customers, suppliers and employees and lead to claims against the company. Any lawsuits that we may initiate to protect our significant investment in our intellectual property also may consume management and financial resources for long periods of time and may not result in favorable outcomes, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Third parties may assert that we are infringing upon their intellectual property rights, which could divert management’s attention, cause us to incur significant costs, and prevent us from selling or using the technology to which such rights relate.
Our competitors and other third parties hold numerous patents related to technology used in our industry. From time to time, we may be subject to claims of intellectual property right infringement and related litigation, and, if we gain greater recognition in the market, we will face a higher risk of being the subject of claims that we have violated others’ intellectual property rights. While we believe that our products and technology do not infringe in any material respect upon any valid intellectual property rights of third parties, we cannot be certain that we would be successful in defending against any such claims. If we do not successfully defend or settle intellectual property claims, we could be liable for significant monetary damages and could be prohibited from continuing to use certain technology, business methods, content, or brands. To avoid a prohibition, we could seek a license from the applicable third party, which could require us to pay significant royalties, increasing our operating expenses. If a license is not available at all or not available on reasonable terms, then we may be required to develop or license a non-violating alternative, either of which could require significant effort and expense. If we cannot license or develop a non-violating alternative, we would be forced to limit or stop sales of our offerings and may be unable to effectively compete. Any of these results would adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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Risks Related to Our Securities
To the extent that any shares of common stock are issued upon exercise of any of the warrants, the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market would increase.
We have outstanding warrants exercisable to purchase shares of common stock at certain exercise prices per share. See Note 13 - Warrants Liability for further discussion. To the extent that any shares of common stock are issued upon exercise of any of the warrants to purchase shares of common stock, there will be an increase in the number of shares of common stock eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of a substantial number of such shares in the public market could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
Provisions in our Charter and Delaware law may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.
Our Charter requires, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, that (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us, our directors, officers or employees arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or our Charter or our bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us or our directors, officers or employees governed by the internal affairs doctrine may be brought only in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware, except any claim (A) as to which the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware determines that there is an indispensable party not subject to the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery (and the indispensable party does not consent to the personal jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery within 10 days following such determination), (B) which is vested in the exclusive jurisdiction of a court or forum other than the Court of Chancery, (C) for which the Court of Chancery does not have subject matter jurisdiction, or (D) any action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended ("Securities Act"), as to which the Court of Chancery and the federal district court for the District of Delaware shall have concurrent jurisdiction. If an action is brought outside of Delaware, the stockholder bringing the suit will be deemed to have consented to service of process on such stockholder’s counsel. Although we believe that this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, a court may determine that this provision is unenforceable, and to the extent it is enforceable, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers, although our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, our Charter provides that the exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Although we believe that this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.
Provisions in our Charter may inhibit a takeover of us, which could limit the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for our common stock and could entrench management.
Our Charter contains provisions that may hinder unsolicited takeover proposals that stockholders may consider to be in their best interests. We are also subject to anti-takeover provisions under Delaware law, which could delay or prevent a change of control. Together these provisions may make it more difficult to remove management and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for our securities. These provisions include:
no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;
a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which could delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of the Board;
the right of our Board to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of our Board or the resignation, death or removal of a director in certain circumstances, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our Board;

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a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders;
advance notice procedures that stockholders must comply with in order to nominate candidates to our Board or to propose matters to be acted upon at a meeting of stockholders, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of the Company; and
the requirement that a meeting of stockholders may only be called by members of our Board or the stockholders holding a majority of our shares, which may delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors.
Our stock price may be volatile and may decline regardless of our operating performance.
Fluctuations in the price of our securities could contribute to the loss of part or all your investment. The trading price of our securities could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in our securities and our securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.
Factors affecting the trading price of our securities may include:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;
changes in the market’s expectations about our operating results;
success of competitors;
our operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;
changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning us or the industries in which we operate in general;
operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;
our ability to market new and enhanced products on a timely basis;
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;
the volume of shares of our common stock available for public sale;
any major change in our board of directors or management;
sales of substantial amounts of our common stock by our directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and
general economic, political, market conditions such as recessions, inflation, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.

Future resales of our common stock may cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our securities irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general, and Nasdaq, have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of our securities, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for the stocks of other companies that investors perceive to be like us could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions, or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our securities also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.
There can be no assurance that our common stock will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq.

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The shares of our common stock and warrants are listed on Nasdaq. If Nasdaq delists the common stock from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, we and our stockholders could face significant material adverse consequences including:
a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;
a determination that our common stock is a “penny stock,” which will require brokers trading in our common stock to adhere to more stringent rules, possibly resulting in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our common stock;
a limited amount of analyst coverage; and
a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.
We are a “smaller reporting company” and, because we have opted to use the reduced reporting requirements available to us, certain investors may find investing in our securities less attractive.
As a smaller reporting company, we are permitted to comply with scaled-back disclosure obligations in our SEC filings compared to other issuers, including with respect to disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements. We have elected to adopt the accommodations available to smaller reporting companies. Until we cease to be a smaller reporting company, the scaled-back disclosure in our SEC filings will result in less information about our company being available than for other public companies. If investors consider our common stock less attractive as a result of our election to use the scaled-back disclosure permitted for smaller reporting companies, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our share price may be more volatile.
We are also a non-accelerated filer under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and we are not required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Therefore, our internal controls over financial reporting will not receive the level of review provided by the process relating to the auditor attestation included in annual reports of issuers that are subject to the auditor attestation requirements. In addition, we cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we are not required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements. We cannot predict if investors will find our securities less attractive because we rely on these available exemptions. If some investors find our securities less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our securities and the market price of our securities may be more volatile.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY
At Eos, we leverage a cybersecurity model that focuses on four key areas: prevention, detection, assessment, and remediation through an array of internal and external systems, along with the expertise of third-party service providers. This model is supported internally by Eos' Information Technology Department ("ITD"), along with expertise of external cybersecurity experts. Our model is also supported through security awareness training for all employees during the onboarding process and on a regular basis thereafter.

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Our Board of Directors has overall oversight responsibility for our cybersecurity model. Our overarching cybersecurity programs are under the direction of the Eos leadership team, and directly supported by the efforts of the ITD. The ITD, led by the Director of ITD, reports to the Chief Financial Officer ("CFO") of the Company. With over 7 years of experience leading cybersecurity teams and programs, our Director of ITD leverages a combination of internal and external systems and security experts to keep our CFO informed of potential risks to the organization. The Director of ITD is responsible for identifying, considering, and assessing material cybersecurity risks on an ongoing basis, establishing processes to ensure that such potential cybersecurity risk exposures are monitored, putting in place appropriate mitigation measures and maintaining cybersecurity programs and systems. Management reports material cybersecurity risks to our Board of Directors on an annual basis. In addition, our management follows a risk-based escalation process to notify the Board of Directors outside of the regular reporting cycle when they identify an emerging risk or material issue.
In 2023, we did not identify any cybersecurity threats that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. However, despite our efforts, we cannot eliminate all risks from cybersecurity threats, or provide assurances that we have not experienced an undetected cybersecurity incident. For more information about these risks, please see Part I, Item 1A- Risk Factors in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters are located in Edison, New Jersey, in an office consisting of approximately 63,000 square feet of office, testing and product design space. We have a ten-year lease on our corporate headquarters, which expires on September 14, 2026.
Our manufacturing facility is located in the Turtle Creek, Pittsburgh area in Pennsylvania. In January 2022, the Company entered into a new lease agreement for a building next to our existing manufacturing site. In 2023, we entered into lease agreements for additional space and facilities in Turtle Creek, Pittsburgh. See Note 14, Leases for further discussion. We believe that our existing properties are in good condition and are sufficient and suitable for the conduct of our business for the foreseeable future.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time, the Company may be involved in litigation relating to claims arising out of the Company’s operations. While the outcomes of these types of claims are uncertain, management does not expect that the ultimate costs to resolve these matters will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
The following is also disclosed in Note 16, Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
Class Action Complaints
On March 8, 2023, a class action lawsuit (the “Delman Complaint”) was filed in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware by plaintiff Richard Delman (the “Delman Plaintiff”) against certain defendants including the Company’s former directors (the “Delman Defendants”). Neither the Company nor Eos Energy Storage LLC were named as a defendant in the Delman Complaint, but each was identified as a relevant non-party, and the Company has indemnification obligations relating to the lawsuit. On February 1, 2024, the parties to the Delman Complaint agreed to a binding Settlement Term Sheet (the “Settlement”) whereby the Delman Plaintiff agreed to resolve the Delman Complaint in exchange for a settlement payment of $8.5 million, consisting of cash payments previously made by the Company of approximately $1.0 million and an additional cash payment of approximately $7.5 million funded by the Company’s D&O liability insurance policies. The settlement is subject to confirmatory discovery and approval by the Court of Chancery.

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On August 1, 2023, a class action lawsuit was filed in the United States District Court of New Jersey by plaintiff William Houck (the “Houck Complaint”) against the Company and against three individual officers: the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, its former Chief Financial Officer, and its current Chief Financial Officer (with the Company, the “Houck Defendants”). The Houck Complaint alleges that the Houck Defendants violated federal securities laws by making knowingly false or misleading statements about the Company’s contractual relationship with a customer and about the size of the Company’s order backlog and commercial pipeline. The Company has denied the allegations of wrongdoing in the Houck Complaint and intends to continue to vigorously defend against this action.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
None.

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information
Eos's shares of common stock and warrants are traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the ticker symbols “EOSE” and “EOSEW”, respectively.
As of February 27, 2024, there were 260 holders of record of Eos common stock.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, and capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.

ITEM 6. [Reserved]
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report. In addition to historical information, this discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from management’s expectations. Factors that could cause such differences are discussed in “Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors.”

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Overview
The Company offers an innovative Znyth™ technology battery energy storage system ("BESS") designed to provide the operating flexibility to manage increased grid complexity and price volatility resulting from an overall increase in renewable energy generation and a congested grid coming from an increase in electricity demand growth. The Company’s BESS is a validated chemistry with accessible non-precious earth components in a durable design that is intended to deliver results in even the most extreme temperatures and conditions. The system is designed to be safe, flexible, scalable, sustainable and manufactured in the United States, using raw materials primarily sourced in the United States. We believe the Company’s flagship Gen 2.3™ battery module and its newest Z3™ battery module are the core of its innovative systems. The Z3 battery module is the only US designed and manufactured battery module that today provide utilities, independent power producers, renewables developers, and C&I customers with an alternative to lithium-ion and lead-acid monopolar batteries for critical 3- to 12-hour discharge duration applications. We believe the Z3 battery will transform how utility, industrial, and commercial customers store power.
In addition to its BESS, the Company currently offers: (a) a BMS which provides a remote asset monitoring capability and service to track the performance and health of the Company’s BESS and to proactively identify future system performance issues through predictive analytics; (b) project management services to ensure the process of implementing the Company’s BESS are coordinated in conjunction with the customer’s overall project plans; (c) commissioning services that ensure the customer’s installation of the BESS meets the performance expected by the customer; and (d) long-term maintenance plans to maintain optimal operating performance of the Company’s systems.
The Company’s growth strategy contemplates increasing sales of battery energy storage systems and related software and services through a direct sales team and sales channel partners. The Company’s current and target customers include utilities, project developers, independent power producers and commercial and industrial companies.
Business Trends
As an SEC-registered and Nasdaq-listed company, we are required to implement procedures and processes to address public company regulatory requirements and customary practices and have, and will continue to, hire additional personnel in this context. We have incurred additional annual expenses as a public company for, among other things, directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, director fees, internal and external accounting, legal, administrative resources, including increased personnel costs, and audit and other professional service fees.
Inflation and cost factors - During 2023, the effects of the Federal Reserve’s interest rate hikes in 2022 and in the first half of 2023 had an impact on reducing inflation. This eased many investor concerns and worked to stabilize the cost of purchasing supplies and raw materials for companies.
U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Renewable Energy Project and Efficient Energy Loan Program
In August 2023, the DOE issued a Conditional Commitment Letter to the Company for a loan of an aggregate principal amount of up to $398.6 million through the DOE’s Clean Energy Financing Program. The Conditional Commitment Letter follows an extensive technical, financial and commercial due diligence process by the DOE. If finalized, the loan is expected to fund 80% of eligible costs of the Company’s planned manufacturing expansion in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania.
Eligible costs include capital expenditures and other costs associated with ramping up the manufacturing lines and facility. Eligible cost include start-up and shakedown costs, as well as certain material and labor costs before efficiencies are met. The Company is working to finalize the loan documents with the DOE and to fulfill certain conditions precedent. Eos is spending eligible costs now that would be reimbursable at first funding.

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Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (“IRA”)
On August 16, 2022, President Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 into law. The IRA has significant economic incentives for both energy storage customers and manufacturers for projects placed in service after December 31, 2022. One of the most important features of the IRA is that it offers a 10-year term tax credit, whereas historically similar industrial credits have been shorter in duration. Customers placing new energy storage facilities in service will be allowed to claim at least a thirty percent investment tax credit (“ITC”) under certain conditions. The IRA also offers an extra ten percent credit if the project is in an “energy community” and another ten percent credit if the project satisfies domestic content requirements, which will be set forth when the implementing regulations are finalized. The ten percent bonus for domestic content could represent a strategic advantage for the Company resulting from the Company’s near-sourcing and Made in America strategy, and we currently anticipate that projects utilizing Eos batteries will qualify for the bonus.
Starting in 2023, there are Production Tax Credits under Internal Revenue Code 45X (“PTC”), that can be claimed on battery components manufactured in the U.S. and sold to U.S. or foreign customers. These tax credits available to manufacturers include a credit for ten percent of the cost incurred to make electrode active materials in addition to credits of $35 per kWh of capacity of battery cells and $10 per kWh of capacity of battery modules. These credits are cumulative, meaning that companies will be able to claim each of the available tax credits based on the battery components produced and sold through 2029, after which the PTC will begin to gradually phase down through 2032. In June 2023, the IRS issued temporary and proposed regulations related to applicable tax credit transferability and direct pay provisions of the Inflation Reduction Act. The Company has reviewed these regulations and believes they do not have a material impact on the financial statements.
These credits are expected to be a new source of cash flow for Eos in the future.
Company Highlights
In January 2023, several investors, including Clear Creek Investments, LLC, Ardsley Advisory Partners LP, and AltEnergy, LLC, and others, made a $13.75 million investment in the Company by purchasing the Company’s 26.5% Convertible Senior PIK Notes due 2026. The proceeds of this funding supported the Company’s strategic growth initiatives. See Note 12, Borrowings to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report for further discussion.
In February 2023, the Company announced an initial 47 MWh renewables plus storage project with one of the largest operators of energy storage in the U.S., along with a separate long-term agreement that contributes 4GWh to the Company’s pipeline.
During 2023, the Company issued three convertible promissory notes with an aggregate principal amount of $35.0 million in a private placement to YA II PN, Ltd. ("Yorkville") under the second, third and fourth supplemental agreements to the Standby Equity Purchase Agreement (SEPA). During 2023, Yorkville delivered Investor Notices requiring the Company to issue and sell an aggregate of 20,993,417 shares of common stock to Yorkville to offset all outstanding amounts owed to Yorkville under the outstanding Promissory Notes. See Note 12, Borrowings to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report for further discussion.
In February 2023, the Company completed the first Eos Cube powered by the next-generation Eos Z3™ battery.
In April 2023, the Company issued 16,000,000 shares of the Company’s common stock at a purchase price of $2.50 per share in a registered direct offering. The Company issued in a concurrent private placement unregistered warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 16,000,000 shares of common stock. The gross proceeds to the Company from the offering were $40.0 million, before deducting advisory fees and other offering expenses payable by the Company.

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In May 2023, the Company issued 3,601,980 shares of the Company’s common stock at a purchase price of $2.221 per share in a registered direct offering. The Company issued in a concurrent private placement unregistered warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 3,601,980 shares of common stock. The gross proceeds to the Company from the offering were $8.0 million, before deducting advisory fees and other offering expenses payable by the Company.
On August 23, 2023, the Company and Yorkville terminated the SEPA, as amended, by mutual written consent. At the time of termination, there were no outstanding borrowings, advance notices or shares of Common Stock to be issued under the SEPA. In addition, there were no fees due by the Company or Yorkville in connection with the termination of the SEPA.
In August 2023, the Company signed a Master Supply Agreement with ACRO Automation Systems to partner in the design, development, and implementation of its state-of-the-art high output manufacturing lines. ACRO is a recognized leader in high-speed, custom designed, automated manufacturing systems.
In August 2023, the Company announced Project AMAZE —American Made Zinc Energy, a $500 million planned expansion and a significant milestone to build 8 GWh of clean energy storage production capacity.
In August 2023, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Conditional Commitment Letter to the Company for a loan of an aggregate principal amount of up to $398.6 million through the DOE’s Clean Energy Financing Program. The Conditional Commitment Letter follows an extensive technical, financial and commercial due diligence process by the DOE. If finalized, the loan is expected to fund 80% of eligible costs of the Company’s planned manufacturing expansion in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania.
In October 2023, the Company announced that Jeff McNeil, former Chief Operating Officer, and Executive Vice President of Enphase, joined the Company’s Board of Directors.
In December 2023, the Company announced that Eos and Pine Gate Renewables, a leading renewable energy company focused on development and strategic financing of solar and storage projects throughout the United States, entered into a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to expand their existing partnership with a minimum additional volume of 500MWh. The partnership between the two companies launched in 2021 with projects in South Carolina and Utah.
In December 2023, the Company, in a public offering, issued 34,482,759 shares of its common stock and 34,482,759 common warrants. The combined offering price to the public of each share of common stock and accompanying one common warrant was $1.45. The common warrants have an exercise price of $1.60 per share, are exercisable immediately, and expire five years following the date of issuance. Gross proceeds to the Company from the offering was $50.0 million, before deducting advisory fees and other offering expenses of approximately $2.7 million.
For the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company recognized the IRA's Production Tax Credit of $3.3 million as a reduction of cost of goods sold on the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss, respectively.



37


Results of Operations
Revenue
For the Years Ended December 31,
($ in thousands)20232022$ Change% Change
Revenue$16,378 $17,924 $(1,546)(9)%
The Company generates revenues from the delivery of its BESS and service-related solutions. The Company expects revenues to increase as it scales production to meet customer demand.
Revenue remained relatively flat for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022.
Cost of goods sold
For the Years Ended December 31,
($ in thousands)20232022$ Change% Change
Cost of goods sold$89,798 $153,260 $(63,462)(41)%
Cost of goods sold primarily consists of direct costs relating to labor, material and overhead directly tied to product manufacturing, engineering, procurement and construction (“EPC”), project delivery, commissioning, and start-up test procedures. Indirect costs included in cost of goods sold are manufacturing overhead such as manufacturing engineering, equipment maintenance, environmental health and safety, quality and production control procurement, transportation, logistics, depreciation and facility-related costs. As a nascent technology with a new manufacturing process that is early in its product lifecycle, the Company still faces significant costs associated with production start-up, commissioning of various components, modules, and subsystems and other related costs. The Company expects its cost of goods sold to exceed revenues in the near term as it continues to scale production and prepares battery energy storage systems delivered to customers to go-live.
Cost of goods sold decreased by $63.5 million, or 41% from $153.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 to $89.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. The decrease in cost of goods sold from 2022 to 2023 was primarily due to approximately 44% fewer containers delivered to customers in 2023 compared to 2022. Also, the Company reduced and concluded Gen 2.3 battery system production in the first half of 2023, and ramped up the Gen Z3™ manufacturing process. The focus on Gen Z3 battery system research and development in 2023, and the reduced material orders and other ancillary costs on the retired Gen 2.3. battery system contributed to the decrease in cost of goods sold from 2022. Additionally, all 2022 expenses were related to the higher cost Gen 2.3 battery system. However, in 2023, expenses from the higher cost Gen 2.3 battery systems were replaced with lower cost Gen Z3 battery system expenses.
Research and development expenses
For the Years Ended December 31,
($ in thousands)20232022$ Change% Change
R&D expenses$18,708 $18,469 $239 %
Research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and other personnel-related costs, materials, third-party services, depreciation, and amortization of intangible assets.
Research and development costs increased by $0.2 million or 1% from $18.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, to $18.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. The increase in research and development costs was primarily driven by higher payroll and personnel costs, higher materials and supplies, partially offset by lower third party services.

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Selling, general and administrative expenses
For the Years Ended December 31,
($ in thousands)20232022$ Change% Change
SG&A expenses$53,650 $60,623 $(6,973)(12)%
Selling, general and administrative expenses primarily consist of payroll and personnel-related, outside professional services, facilities, depreciation, travel, marketing, and public company costs.
Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased by $7.0 million or 12%, from $60.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 to $53.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. The decrease was primarily driven by decreases in outside consulting expenses of $7.2 million, duties and insurance fees of $1.5 million, and legal and professional costs of $0.3 million, offset by increases of $1.2 million of payroll and personnel costs and $0.8 million of facility costs.
Loss from write-down on property, plant and equipment
For the Years Ended December 31,
($ in thousands)20232022
Loss from write-down on PP&E$7,159 $6,846 
The Company incurred losses of $7.2 million and $6.8 million from write-downs of property, plant and equipment for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The 2023 amount is a result of higher costs for disposal of equipment and tooling that was used for manufacturing of the Gen 2.3 battery, but cannot be repurposed for the Eos Z3 battery production.
Interest expense, net
For the Years Ended December 31,
($ in thousands)20232022
Interest expense, net$(18,770)$(7,915)
Interest expense, net includes accrued interest, amortization of debt issuance costs and debt discounts, and interest income. Interest expense, net increased by $10.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase is primarily due to 12 months of interest expense recognized in 2023 related to the Senior Secured Term Loan, which was issued in July 2022, compared to five months of expense in 2022. Additionally, the Senior Secured Term Loan has a variable interest rate, therefore, higher 2023 interest rates contributed to the increase. See Note 11, Borrowings for detail of interest expense recognized for the Senior Secured Term Loan for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.
Interest expense - related party
For the Years Ended December 31,
($ in thousands)20232022
Interest expense - related party$(37,466)$(10,898)
Interest expense, related party includes accrued interest, amortization of debt issuance costs and debt discounts. Interest expense - related party increased by $26.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022.

39


For the year ended December 31, 2023, in addition to interest expense on outstanding debt, the Company recognized losses on the issuances of Yorkville Convertible Promissory Notes in the amount of $17.6 million and AFG Convertible Notes in the amount of $2.9 million. These losses were recorded because the fair value of these notes exceeded the total net proceeds received at issuance. See Note 12, Borrowings for further discussion.
Change in fair value of warrants
For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, the change in fair value of warrants was composed of the items below:
For the Year Ended December 31, 2023
($ in thousands)
Loss on issuance
 Gain on Change in Fair Value
Net (Loss) Gain
IPO warrants
— 23 23 
April 2023 Transaction
(26,366)18,330 (8,036)
May 2023 Transaction
(5,267)3,403 (1,864)
December 2023 Public Offering
$(21,294)$6,191 $(15,103)
     Change in fair value of warrants
$(52,927)$27,947 $(24,980)
For the Year Ended December 31, 2022
($ in thousands)
Loss on issuance
 Gain on Change in Fair Value
Net (Loss) Gain
IPO warrants
— 848 848 
     Change in fair value of warrants
$— $848 $848 

Change in fair value of derivatives - related parties
For the Years Ended December 31,
($ in thousands)20232022
Change in fair value of derivatives - related parties
$9,983 $10,880 
The change in the fair value of derivatives - related parties, includes the change in fair value of the embedded derivatives in our convertible debt (See Note 12, Borrowings) for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. The change was largely a result of the change in the Company's stock price.
Loss on debt extinguishment
For the Years Ended December 31,
($ in thousands)20232022
Loss on debt extinguishment
$(3,510)$(942)
The Company recognized a loss on debt extinguishment of $3.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 from the issuance of common stock upon Yorkville's redemption of their Convertible Promissory Notes. See Note 12, Borrowings for further discussion.
The Company recognized a loss on debt extinguishment of $0.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 from repayment of the Hi-Power note payable.

40


Other expense
For the Years Ended December 31,
($ in thousands)20232022
Other expense
$(1,795)$(477)
Other expense of $1.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 primarily includes equity issuance costs from the April, May, and December 2023 equity and warrant issuances. See Note 13, Warrants Liability for further discussion.
Other expense of $0.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 includes commitment fees of $1.1 million paid upon signing of the SEPA, partially offset by a $0.5 million gain from settlement of the SEPA advance.
Income tax expense
For the Years Ended December 31,
($ in thousands)20232022
Income tax expense$31 $51 
Income tax expense of approximately $0.03 million and $0.1 million was recorded for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. The taxes are attributable to taxable earnings from the Company’s foreign operations which were insignificant for all periods presented.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Liquidity and Going Concern
As a growth company in the early commercialization stage of its lifecycle, Eos is subject to inherent risks and uncertainties associated with the development of an enterprise. In this regard, substantially all of the Company’s efforts to date have been devoted to the development and manufacturing of battery energy storage systems and complimentary products and services, recruitment of management and technical staff, deployment of capital to expand the Company’s operations to meet customer demand and raising capital to fund the Company’s development. As a result of these efforts, the Company has incurred significant losses and negative cash flows from operations since its inception and expects to continue to incur such losses and negative cash flows for the foreseeable future until such time that the Company can reach a scale of profitability to sustain its operations.
In order to execute its development strategy, the Company has historically relied on outside capital through the issuance of equity, debt, and borrowings under financing arrangements (collectively “outside capital”) to fund its cost structure and expects to continue to rely on outside capital for the foreseeable future. While the Company believes it will eventually reach a scale of profitability to sustain its operations, there can be no assurance the Company will be able to achieve such profitability or do so in a manner that does not require its continued reliance on outside capital. Moreover, while the Company has historically been successful in raising outside capital, there can be no assurance the Company will be able to continue to obtain outside capital in the future or do so on terms that are acceptable to the Company.
As of the date the accompanying consolidated financial statements were issued (the “issuance date”), management evaluated the significance of the following negative financial conditions in accordance with Accounting Standard Codification 205-40, Going Concern:
Since its inception, the Company has incurred significant losses and negative cash from operations in order to fund its development. During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company incurred a net loss of $229.5 million, incurred negative cash flows from operations of $145.0 million, and had an accumulated deficit of $875.8 million as of December 31, 2023.

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As of December 31, 2023, the Company had $69.5 million of unrestricted cash and cash equivalents available to fund the Company’s operations, no additional borrowings available to fund its operations under pre-existing financing arrangements (see Note 12, Borrowings) and working capital of $61.5 million, inclusive of $3.3 million of outstanding debt that is currently scheduled to mature within the next twelve months beyond the issuance date.
While the Company has available capacity under certain pre-existing arrangements to issue shares of the Company’s common stock, including the at-the-market (“ATM”) offering program, (see Note 19, Shareholders’ Deficit) to aid in funding the Company’s operations, the Company’s ability to secure such funding is dependent upon certain conditions, such as investors’ willingness to purchase the Company’s common stock and at a price that is acceptable to the Company. Accordingly, as of the issuance date there is no assurance the Company will be able to secure funding under these pre-existing arrangements or on terms that are acceptable to the Company.
Similarly, while the Company has historically been successful in raising additional outside capital to fund the Company’s operations, as of the issuance date no assurance can be provided the Company will be successful in obtaining additional outside capital or on terms that are acceptable to the Company. In this regard, the Company continues to progress through the Department of Energy (“DOE”) Loan Programs Office’s (“LPO”) process for its Title XVII loan. In August 2023, the DOE issued a Conditional Commitment Letter to the Company for a loan of an aggregate principal amount of up to $398.6 million through the DOE’s Clean Energy Financing Program. Certain technical, legal, and financial conditions must be met and due diligence to the satisfaction of the DOE must be completed before the DOE enters into definitive financing documents with the Company and funds the loan. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to secure such a loan or on terms that are acceptable to the Company.
The Company is required to remain in compliance with a quarterly minimum financial liquidity covenant under its Senior Secured Term Loan. While the Company was in compliance with this covenant as of December 31, 2023, and expects to remain in compliance as of March 31, 2024, absent the Company’s ability to secure additional outside capital, the Company may be unable to remain in compliance with this covenant beginning on June 30, 2024 and thereafter. In the event the Company is unable to remain in compliance with the minimum financial liquidity covenant and the other nonfinancial covenants required by the Senior Secured Term Loan, and the Company is further unable to cure such noncompliance or secure a waiver, Atlas may, at its discretion, exercise any and all of its existing rights and remedies, which may include, among other things, entering into a forbearance agreement with the Company, and/or asserting its rights in the Company’s assets securing the loan. Moreover, the Company’s other lenders may exercise similar rights and remedies under the cross-default provisions of their respective borrowing arrangements with the Company.
Absent an ability to secure additional outside capital in the near term, the Company will be unable to meet its obligations as they become due over the next twelve months beyond the issuance date.
In the event the Company’s ongoing efforts to raise additional outside capital prove unsuccessful, management will be required to seek other strategic alternatives, which may include, among others, a significant curtailment in the Company’s operations, a sale of certain of the Company’s assets, a sale of the entire Company to strategic or financial investors, and/or allowing the Company to become insolvent.
These uncertainties raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the basis that the Company will continue to operate as a going concern, which contemplates that the Company will be able to realize assets and settle liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business for the foreseeable future. Accordingly, the accompanying consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that may result from the outcome of these uncertainties.

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Financing Arrangements
The Company has historically relied on outside capital to fund its cost structure and expects this reliance to continue for the foreseeable future until the Company reaches profitability through its planned revenue generating activities. During 2023, the Company closed on the following capital transactions:
On January 18, 2023, the Company raised $13.8 million from the issuance of the AFG Convertible Notes, which mature in June 2026.
In April 2023, the Company issued 16,000,000 shares of the Company’s common stock at a purchase price of $2.50 per share in a registered direct offering. The Company also issued in a concurrent private placement unregistered warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 16,000,000 shares of common stock. The gross proceeds to the Company from the offering were $40.0 million, before deducting advisory fees and other offering expenses payable by the Company.
In May 2023, the Company issued 3,601,980 shares of the Company’s common stock at a purchase price of $2.221 per share in a registered direct offering. The Company also issued in a concurrent private placement unregistered warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 3,601,980 shares of common stock. The gross proceeds to the Company from the offering were $8.0 million, before deducting advisory fees and other offering expenses payable by the Company.
For the year ended December 31, 2023, total funds raised under the SEPA, inclusive of net proceeds received from the Yorkville Convertible Promissory Notes, were $35.6 million.
Under the ATM offering program, for the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company sold 37,126,137 shares raising proceeds of $92.9 million, net of fees paid to Cowen, at an average selling price of $2.58 per share.
In December 2023, the Company issued in a combined public offering (i) 34,482,759 shares of its common stock and (ii) accompanying common warrants to purchase one share of common stock for each share of common stock sold. The gross proceeds to the Company from the offering were $50.0 million, before deducting underwriting fees and selling concessions at closing.
See Note 12, Borrowings, and Note 19, Shareholders' Deficit for all of the Company’s outstanding debt and equity transactions.
Capital Expenditures
The Company expects capital expenditures and working capital requirements to increase as it seeks to execute its growth strategy. Total capital expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022 were $29.3 million and $20.1 million, respectively. The increase in capital expenditures in 2023 was primarily driven by costs incurred for development and construction of a fully automated manufacturing line that will be used for the Z3™ battery in 2024 and years thereafter. These costs are classified as Construction in Progress (see Note 6, Property, Plant and Equipment for further discussion).

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Discussion and Analysis of Cash Flows
The Company relies heavily on private placement of convertible notes, term loans, equipment financing and issuance of common stock and warrants. Our short-term working capital needs are primarily related to funding of debt interest payments, repayment of debt principal, product manufacturing, research and development, and general corporate expenses. The Company’s long-term working capital needs are primarily related to repayment of long-term debt obligations and capital expenses for capacity expansion and maintenance, equipment upgrades and repair of equipment.
The following table summarizes our cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities for the periods presented.
For the Years Ended December 31,
($ in thousands)20232022
Net cash used in operating activities$(145,018)$(196,857)
Net cash used in investing activities(29,461)(17,170)
Net cash provided by financing activities227,918 139,544 
Cash flows from operating activities:
Cash flows used in operating activities primarily comprise of costs related to research and development, manufacturing of products, project commissioning and other general and administrative activities.
Net cash used in operating activities of $145.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 was primarily driven by a net loss of $229.5 million, adjusted for non-cash items of $94.2 million. Non-cash items included stock-based compensation expense, depreciation and amortization, non-cash interest expense, changes in fair value of warrants and derivatives, and loss from the write-down of property, plant and equipment. The net cash outflows from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $9.7 million was primarily driven by decrease in accounts payable of $11.5 million, increase in contract assets of $6.3 million, increase in other receivables of $7.5 million, and increase in grant receivables of $3.0 million, partially offset by an increase in accrued expenses of $19.3 million.
Net cash used in operating activities of $196.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily driven by a net loss of $229.8 million, adjusted for non-cash items of $31.0 million. Non-cash items included stock-based compensation expense, depreciation and amortization, non-cash interest expense, changes in fair value of warrants and derivatives, and loss from the write-down of property, plant and equipment. The net cash inflows from changes in operating assets and liabilities of $2.0 million was primarily driven by an increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses of $23.4 million, an increase in contract liabilities of $4.0 million, and a decrease in vendor deposits of $6.8 million. These inflows were partially offset by an increase in inventory of $10.3 million and a decrease in the Hi-Power note payable of $19.6 million.

Cash flows from investing activities:
Net cash flows used in investing activities of $29.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 were composed of increase in property, plant and equipment of $29.3 million, which includes costs incurred for development and construction of a fully automated manufacturing line that will be used for the Z3™ battery in 2024 and years thereafter.
Net cash flows used in investing activities of $17.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 were primarily composed of payments made for purchases of property, plant and equipment of $20.1 million, note receivable advanced to a customer of $0.3 million, partially offset by proceeds from notes receivable of $3.2 million.

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Cash flows from financing activities:
Net cash provided by financing activities was $227.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. This was primarily from the issuance of common stock and warrants in the amount of $192.2 million, as well net proceeds received from the issuance of Yorkville Convertible Promissory Notes and AFG Convertible Notes, totaling $48.1 million. The proceeds were partially offset by equity issuance costs of $5.0 million, debt issuance costs related to the Yorkville Convertible Promissory Notes, AFG Convertible Notes and Senior Secured Term Loan of $4.2 million, payments on the equipment financing facility of $2.9 million and share repurchases from employees for tax withholding purposes of $0.6 million.
Net cash provided by financing activities of $139.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, was primarily from net proceeds received from the Senior Secured Term Loan of $98.0 million, issuance of common stock of $43.6 million, issuance of Yorkville Convertible Promissory Notes of $9.3 million, and an increase in the equipment financing facility of $4.2 million. The proceeds were partially offset by debt issuance costs related to the Senior Secured Term Loan of $12.4 million, payments on the equipment financing facility of $1.9 million, and share repurchases from employees for tax withholding purposes of $1.0 million.
Contractual Obligations
The Company has certain obligations and commitments to make future payments under contracts. As of December 31, 2023, this is comprised of the following:
Open purchase obligations of $0.1 million, related to a supply purchase agreement with a minimum volume commitment. See Note 16, Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
Future lease payments, including interest, under non-cancellable operating and financing leases of $6.1 million. The leases expire at various dates prior to 2028. See Note 14, Leases to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
Principal and Interest payments related to the following debt obligations. See Note 12, Borrowings to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Future Debt Payments
AFG Convertible Notes - due June 2026 (1)
$32,468 
2021 Convertible Notes Payable – due June 2026 (1)
134,261 
Senior Secured Term Loan - due March 2026131,838 
Equipment financing facility - due April 2025 and April 2026
6,578 
  Total $305,145 
(1) As of December 31, 2023, the Company is obligated to repay future contractual interest payments for the 2021 Convertible Notes and AFG Convertible Notes in-kind.

Critical Accounting Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. In preparing our consolidated financial statements, we make assumptions, judgments, and estimates on historical experience and various other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We regularly reevaluate our assumptions, judgments, and estimates.

45


Critical accounting estimates are those estimates that involve a significant level of estimation uncertainty and could have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations.
Warranty Liability
The Company generally provides a standard warranty for a period of two years. We also provide extended warranties and performance guarantees, which are identified as separate performance obligations in the Company's contracts with customers. We accrue warranty reserves at the time of recording the sale. Warranty reserves include management’s best estimate of the projected costs to repair or to replace any items under warranty, which is based on various factors including actual claim data to date, results of lab testing, factory quality data, and field monitoring. Due to limited claim experience since commercialization of our product, and the potential for variability in these underlying factors, the difference between our estimated costs and our actual costs could be material to our consolidated financial statements. If actual product failure rates or the frequency or severity of reported claims differ from our estimates, we may be required to revise our estimated warranty liability. We will also update actual warranty experience to determine warranty reserves as such experience becomes available. We review our reserves at least quarterly, seeking to ensure that our accruals are adequate in meeting expected future warranty obligations, and we will adjust our estimates as needed. Initial warranty data can be limited at the early stage in the commercialization of our products and, the adjustments that we record may be material. Thus, it is likely that as we sell additional BESS, we will acquire additional information on the projected costs to repair or replace items under warranty and may need to make additional adjustments (See Note 9, Accrued Expenses to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report).
Warrants Liability
The Company estimated the fair value of the April 2023 warrants, the May 2023 warrants, and the December 2023 warrants using the Black-Scholes model at inception and on subsequent valuation dates. This model incorporates inputs such as the stock price of the Company, exercise price, risk-free interest rate, expected volatility, and time to expiration. The expected volatility involves unobservable inputs classified as Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. The sensitivity of the fair value calculation to this assumption could create materially different results under different conditions or using different assumptions. See Note 15, Fair Value Measurement to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
Convertible Notes and Embedded Derivatives
The Company estimated the fair value of the embedded conversion features in the 2021 Convertible Notes and the AFG Convertible Notes using a binomial lattice model at inception and on subsequent valuation dates. This model incorporates inputs such as the stock price of the Company, dividend yield, risk-free interest rate, the effective debt yield and expected volatility. The effective debt yield and volatility involve unobservable inputs classified as Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. The sensitivity of the fair value calculation to these methods, assumptions, and estimates included could create materially different results under different conditions or using different assumptions. See Note 15, Fair Value Measurements to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

46


ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURE ABOUT MARKET RISK

Liquidity Risk
Liquidity risk arises from the general funding needs of the Company's activities and in the management of the Company's assets and liabilities. Our exposure to liquidity risk is dependent on our ability to raise funds to meet our obligations and sustain operations. We manage liquidity risk by continuously monitoring our actual and forecasted working capital requirements to ensure there is capital to meet short-term, long-term obligations, including our liquidity covenants under the Senior Secured Term Loan (see Note 12, Borrowings to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report). As disclosed in Note 1, Overview to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report, there is a substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern. In order to execute its development strategy, the Company has historically relied on outside capital to fund its cost structure and expects to continue to rely on outside capital for the foreseeable future. While the Company believes it will eventually reach a scale of profitability to sustain its operations, there can be no assurance the Company will be able to achieve such profitability or do so in a manner that does not require its continued reliance on outside capital. Moreover, while the Company has historically been successful in raising outside capital, there can be no assurance the Company will be able to continue to obtain outside capital in the future or do so on terms that are acceptable to the Company.

Equity Price Risk
Equity price risk arises from security price volatility. The Company is subject to this risk due to the warrants issued, since they are measured at fair value. See Note 15, Fair Value Measurement for warrant valuations and fair values, as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.


47


ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Please see our Financial Statements beginning on page F-1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
None.

ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, under the supervision of our Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and our Chief Financial Officer (CFO), has carried out an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act) as of December 31, 2023. As initially disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 25, 2021, our management identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. As described below, while our management, with the oversight of the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors, has made progress towards remediating the material weaknesses, our management determined that the material weaknesses have not yet been remediated. Accordingly, based on our management evaluation, the CEO and CFO have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of December 31, 2023 due to the material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting described in “Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting” below.
Disclosure controls and procedures are controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our reports filed or submitted under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our reports filed under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management, including our CEO and our CFO, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
In light of the material weaknesses described below, we performed additional analyses, reconciliations, and other post-closing procedures to determine that our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Accordingly, management concluded that the consolidated financial statements included in this report fairly present in all material respects our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented.

Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) and based upon the criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“the COSO Framework”). Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of our financial reporting and preparation of our financial statements for external reporting purposes in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
An effective internal control system, no matter how well designed, has inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error or overriding controls, and therefore can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to reliable financial reporting. Because of its inherent limitations, our internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect all misstatements, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls, or fraud. Effective internal controls can only provide reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements.
Management, including our CEO and CFO, assessed the Company’s internal control over financial reporting and concluded that they were not effective as of December 31, 2023. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth by the COSO framework. Based on this evaluation, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2023 due to the material weaknesses resulting from our lack of a formalized internal control framework in accordance with COSO, inadequate segregation of duties in the financial reporting process, lack of review and approval of journal entries, and a lack of management review controls.

48

Table of Contents
Management’s Remediation Plan
In response to the material weaknesses, management, with oversight of the Audit Committee has identified and begun to implement steps to remediate the material weaknesses. The Company hired an independent accounting firm to assist with the remediation efforts.
While the Company has made progress with the remediation of these material weaknesses during 2023, the remediation efforts are ongoing, because additional time is needed to complete the remediation and allow for the internal controls to be tested by management. Our continued internal control remediation efforts include the following:
Developed a framework to identify risks of material misstatement to our consolidated financial statements and made progress towards designing appropriate controls to mitigate those risks.
Made progress towards enhancing existing policies and procedures and developing new policies and procedures to assist our finance organization in recording transactions appropriately.
We are in the process of designing accounting processes to provide a more timely and detailed review of complex and non-routine areas.
Engaged external experts to complement internal resources and to provide support related to more complex applications of GAAP, tax, and internal controls. We will continue to utilize outside resources, as necessary, to supplement our internal team.
Redesigning accounting period-end close control activities over reconciliations and journal entries, including review and approval controls, and the implementation of an automated financial close solution.
Designed general information technology controls and in the process of implementing such controls.
Enhanced communications with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors related to the Company’s progress on the remediation of these material weaknesses. The Company also continues to formally report quarterly to the Audit Committee and the Board regarding progress against the remediation plan.
The process of implementing an effective financial reporting system is a continuous effort that requires us to anticipate and react to changes in our business and the economic and regulatory environments and to expend significant resources to maintain a financial reporting system that is adequate to satisfy our reporting obligations. As we continue to evaluate and take actions to improve our internal control over financial reporting, we will further refine our remediation plan and take additional actions to address control deficiencies or modify certain of the remediation measures described above.
While progress has been made to enhance our internal control over financial reporting, we are still in the process of designing, implementing, documenting, and testing the effectiveness of these processes, procedures and controls. Additional time is required to complete the implementation and to assess and ensure the sustainability of these procedures. We will continue to devote significant time and attention to these remedial efforts. However, the material weaknesses cannot be considered remediated until the applicable remedial controls are fully implemented, have operated for a sufficient period of time and management has concluded that these controls are operating effectively.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Other than the actions taken as described in Management's Remediation Plan above to improve the Company’s internal control over financial reporting, there have been no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during the quarter ended December 31, 2023 that materially affected, or which are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION
On February 28, 2024, Audrey Zibelman notified the board of directors (the “Board”) of the Company of her decision not to stand for reelection to the Board at the expiration of her current term at the Company’s 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “2024 Annual Meeting”). Ms. Zibelman’s decision not to stand for reelection is not the result of any disagreement with the Company on any matter relating to its operations, policies, practices or otherwise.

ITEM 9C. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

None.

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Table of Contents

PART III
ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement relating to our 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. The Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.
Codes of Business Conduct and Ethics
Our board of directors has adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that applies to all officers, directors and employees, which is available on our website at https://investors.eose.com under "Governance Documents". We intend to satisfy the disclosure requirement under Item 5.05 of Form 8-K regarding amendments to, or waiver from, a provision of our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and by posting such information on the website address and location specified above.

ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement relating to our 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. The Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.

ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
The information required by this item, including Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Plans, is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement relating to our 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. The Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.

ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement relating to our 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. The Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.

ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES
The information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our Proxy Statement relating to our 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. The Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.

PART IV

ITEM 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
(1) Financial statement. The consolidated financial statements and Reports of Independent Registered Accounting Firm are listed in the “Index to Financial Statements” beginning on page F-1.
(2) Financial Statement Schedules and Other Financial Information. No financial statement schedules are submitted because either they are not applicable or because the required information is included in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto.

50

Table of Contents
(3) Exhibits. Filed as part of this Annual Report are the following exhibits:
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit NumberDescription of DocumentSchedule/FormFile NumberExhibit Filing date
2.1Form 8-K
File No. 001-39291
2.1
September 8, 2020
3.1Form 10-KFile No. 001-392913.1February 28, 2023
3.2Form 8-K
File No. 001-39291
3.2
May 19, 2022
4.1Form 8-K
File No. 001-39291
4.1
November 20, 2020
4.2Form 8-K
File No. 001-39291
4.2
November 20, 2020
4.3Form 8-K
File No. 001-39291
4.1
July 7, 2021
4.4Form 8-K
File No. 001-39291
4.1
May 22, 2020
4.5Form 10-KFile No. 001-392914.5February 25, 2022
4.6Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1April 13, 2022

51

Table of Contents
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit NumberDescription of DocumentSchedule/FormFile NumberExhibit Filing date
4.7Form 8-KFile No. 001-392914.1June 13, 2022
4.8Form 8-K
File No. 001-39291
4.1
December 29, 2022
4.9Form 8-KFile No. 001-392914.1January 19, 2023
4.10Form 8-KFile No. 001-392914.1February 02, 2023
4.11Form 8-KFile No. 001-392914.1March 17, 2023
4.12Form 8-KFile No. 001-392914.1April 11, 2023
4.13Form 8-KFile No. 001-392914.1April 14, 2023
4.14Form 8-KFile No. 001-392914.1May 17, 2023
4.15Form 8-KFile No. 001-392914.1May 25, 2023
4.16Form 8-KFile No. 001-392914.2May 25, 2023
4.17Form 8-KFile No. 001-392914.1December 15, 2023
10.1Form 8-K
File No. 001-39291
10.8
November 20, 2020

52

Table of Contents
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit NumberDescription of DocumentSchedule/FormFile NumberExhibit Filing date
10.2Form 8-K
File No. 001-39291
10.10
November 20, 2020
10.3Form 8-K
File No. 001-39291
10.13
November 20, 2020
10.4Form 8-K
File No. 001-39291
99.1March 2, 2021
10.5Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1March 12, 2021
10.6Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1March 31, 2021
10.7Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1April 14, 2021
10.8Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.2April 14, 2021
10.9Form 8-KFile No. 001-392914.01May 10, 2021
10.10Form 8-KFile No. 001-392914.02May 10, 2021
10.11Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1July 7, 2021
10.12Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1October 5, 2021
10.13Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.2October 5, 2021

53

Table of Contents
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit NumberDescription of DocumentSchedule/FormFile NumberExhibit Filing date
10.14Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.01December 14, 2021
10.15Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.02December 14, 2021
10.16Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1February 14, 2022
10.17Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1April 28, 2022
10.18Form 10-QFile No. 001-3929110.3May 9, 2022
10.19Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1June 13, 2022
10.20Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.2June 13, 2022
10.21Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1August 1, 2022

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Table of Contents
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit NumberDescription of DocumentSchedule/FormFile NumberExhibit Filing date
10.22Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.2August 1, 2022
10.23Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1August 5, 2022
10.24Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.2August 5, 2022
10.25Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1September 9, 2022
10.27Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1December 8, 2022
10.30Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1January 20, 203
10.31Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.2January 20, 203
10.32Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1January 19, 2023

55

Table of Contents
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit NumberDescription of DocumentSchedule/FormFile NumberExhibit Filing date
10.33Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.2January 19, 2023
10.38
Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1April 14, 2023
10.39
Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1May 17, 2023
10.40Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1August 23, 2023
10.41Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.2August 23, 2023
10.42Form 8-KFile No. 001-3929110.1August 28, 2023
10.43*
10.44*
21.1
Form 10-K
File No. 001-3929121.1February 28, 2023
23.1*
24.1*Power of Attorney (included on the signature page herein)

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Table of Contents
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit NumberDescription of DocumentSchedule/FormFile NumberExhibit Filing date
31.1*
31.2*
32.1*+
32.2*+
97*
101.SCHXBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document
101.CALXBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
101.LABXBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document
101.PREXBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document
101.DEFXBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document
104*Inline XBRL for the cover page of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, included in the Exhibit 101 Inline XBRL Document Set

57

Table of Contents
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit NumberDescription of DocumentSchedule/FormFile NumberExhibit Filing date
Certain of the exhibits and schedules to this Exhibit have been omitted in accordance with Regulation S-K Item 601(a)(5). The Registrant agrees to furnish a copy of all omitted exhibits and schedules to the SEC upon its request.
*Filed herewith.
+The certifications furnished in Exhibit 32.1 and Exhibit 32.2 hereto are deemed to accompany this Annual Report on Form 10-K and will not be deemed "filed" for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, except to the extent that the registrant specifically incorporates it by reference.

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EOS ENERGY ENTERPRISES, INC

Index to Financial Statements
PAGE
Financial Statements
F-2
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2023 and 2022
F-4
F-6
F-7
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022
F-8
F-10 to F-44



































F-1

Table of Contents
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the shareholders and the Board of Directors of Eos Energy Enterprises, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Eos Energy Enterprises, Inc. (the "Company") as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, shareholders’ (deficit) equity, and cash flows, for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Going Concern
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 1 to the financial statements, the Company has suffered recurring losses from operations and may be unable to remain in compliance with a financial covenant required by a borrowing arrangement absent the Company’s ability to secure additional outside capital, which raises substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note 1. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
F-2

Table of Contents
Convertible Notes Payable and Warrants Liability - Refer to Notes 12 and 13 to the financial statements
Critical Audit Matter Description
The Company’s 2021 Convertible Notes and AFG Convertible Notes (collectively "the Convertible Notes") contain embedded conversion features that are required to be bifurcated from the Convertible Notes and measured at fair value at each reporting period.
The Company estimates the fair value of the embedded conversion feature using a binomial lattice model at the inception and on subsequent valuation dates. This model incorporates inputs such as the stock price of the Company, dividend yield, risk-free interest rate, the effective debt yield, and expected volatility. The effective debt yield and the expected volatility involve unobservable inputs.
The Company’s April 2023 Transaction, May 2023 Transaction, and the December 2023 Public Offering include warrants that are required to be measured at fair value at each reporting period. The Company estimates the fair value of the warrants using a Black-Scholes model at the inception and on subsequent valuation dates. This model incorporates inputs such as the stock price of the Company, exercise price, risk-free interest rate, expected volatility, and time to expiration. The expected volatility involves unobservable inputs.
Unlike the fair value of financial instruments that are readily observable and therefore more easily independently corroborated, the valuation of the embedded conversion features and warrants is inherently subjective and involves the use of complex modeling tools. Auditing the fair value of the embedded conversion features and warrants requires a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort, including the need to involve our fair value specialists.
How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to the valuation of (1) the embedded conversion features in the Convertible Notes and (2) warrants included the following, among others:
With the assistance of our fair value specialists, we evaluated the reasonableness of management’s valuation methodology and the significant assumptions used in determining the fair value of the embedded conversion features and warrants by:
Testing the source information underlying the fair value of the embedded conversion features and warrants and the mathematical accuracy of the calculations.
Developing an independent estimate of the inputs and compared those to the inputs used in the fair value of the embedded conversion features and warrants.
We evaluated the competency and objectivity of management’s expert engaged by the Company to perform the valuation of the embedded conversion features and warrants.

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

New York, NY
March 4, 2024

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2017.











F-3

Table of Contents

EOS ENERGY ENTERPRISES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
December 31,
20232022
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$69,473 $17,076 
Restricted cash3,439 2,725 
Accounts receivable, net3,387 1,666 
Inventory, net17,070 23,260 
Vendor deposits7,161 4,789 
Contract assets, current6,386 1,859 
Prepaid expenses1,082 2,289 
Grant receivable
3,256 263 
Other receivables
7,500  
Other current assets3,577 1,220 
Total current assets122,331 55,147 
Property, plant and equipment, net37,855 27,169 
Intangible assets, net295 240 
Goodwill4,331 4,331 
Operating lease right-of-use asset, net4,033 4,316 
Long-term restricted cash11,755 11,422 
Other assets, net5,892 4,163 
Total assets$186,492 $106,788 
LIABILITIES
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable $20,540 $34,669 
Accrued expenses32,332 15,359 
Operating lease liability, current1,496 1,106 
Long-term debt, current3,332 2,872 
Convertible notes payable - related party 2,688 
Contract liabilities, current3,070 3,850 
Other current liabilities100 32 
Total current liabilities60,870 60,576 
Long-term liabilities:
Operating lease liability3,350 4,130 
Long-term debt88,002 87,321 
Convertible notes payable - related party112,525 82,950 
Contract liabilities, long-term3,540 956 
Warrants
27,461 78 
Other liabilities
1,544 3,488 
Total long-term liabilities236,422 178,923 
Total liabilities297,292 239,499 
F-4

Table of Contents

EOS ENERGY ENTERPRISES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
December 31,
20232022
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES (NOTE 16)
SHAREHOLDERS' DEFICIT
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value, 300,000,000 and 300,000,000 shares authorized, 199,133,827 and 82,653,781 shares outstanding at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
21 9 
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 1,000,000 shares authorized, no shares outstanding at December 31, 2023 and 2022
  
Additional paid in capital765,018 513,614 
Accumulated deficit(875,846)(646,340)
Accumulated other comprehensive income7 6 
Total shareholders' deficit
(110,800)(132,711)
Total liabilities and shareholders’ deficit
$186,492 $106,788 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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Table of Contents

EOS ENERGY ENTERPRISES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)
For the Years Ended December 31,
20232022
Revenue
  Total revenue$16,378 $17,924 
Costs and expenses
Cost of goods sold89,798 153,260 
Research and development expenses18,708 18,469 
Selling, general and administrative expenses53,650 60,623 
Loss from write-down of property, plant and equipment7,159 6,846 
Grant income, net
 (16)
Total costs and expenses169,315 239,182 
Operating loss(152,937)(221,258)
Other (expense) income
Interest expense, net(18,770)(7,915)
Interest expense – related party(37,466)(10,898)
Change in fair value of warrants
(24,980)848 
Change in fair value of derivatives - related parties
9,983 10,880 
     Loss on debt extinguishment
(3,510)(942)
     Other expense
(1,795)(477)
Loss before income taxes$(229,475)$(229,762)
      Income tax expense31 51 
Net loss$(229,506)$(229,813)
Other comprehensive income
      Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax1 6 
Comprehensive loss$(229,505)$(229,807)
Basic and diluted loss per share attributable to common shareholders
Basic$(1.81)